Browse POLICY Project (1995-2006) Materials
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- Adolescent Reproductive Health
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Country and regional assignments reflect those made at the time of production and may not correspond to current USAID designations.
List entries are alphabetical by title and contain the title, abstract, language, and then the filename which is hyperlinked and will open in a new browser window. Many files are PDFs but some of the older ones are Word documents.
Four background papers prepared for the Plenary Session on HIV/AIDS of the AGOA Forum address issues related to the HIV/AIDS crisis.
This paper describes the AGOA objectives and explains how HIV/AIDS may affect our ability to achieve those objectives.
There is a growing literature that discusses the impact of HIV/AIDS on prospects for development (Barnett and Whiteside, 2002, provides an excellent overview). Less attention has been paid to the impact of development on the spread of HIV/AIDS. The process of development often leads to rural–urban migration, increased trade and transport, and the attenuation of family relations due to physical separation. These processes pose challenges in the fight against HIV/AIDS. On balance, economic growth and development support the fight against AIDS, yet the process of development must be managed effectively to assure that economic development and the fight against AIDS work together to benefit sub-Saharan Africa. Workplace programs are cost-effective. AGOA factories provide ideal environments for implementation of HIV/AIDS prevention, care, and treatment programs that are mutually beneficial for the companies and societies.
AGOA representatives met late in 2001, again in 2002, and now for a third time in December 2003. Background papers from previous meetings suggested a number of actions that AGOA member countries could consider to enhance the effectiveness of responses to the threat of HIV/AIDS. This paper summarizes a few issues and actions, linking the actions specifically to (1) finance and planning ministries, (2) trade, labor, and commerce ministries, (3) the business sector, and (4) donors and assistance agencies. The delegates could discuss which key actions they would like to monitor and possibly report on at the next AGOA forum. They are welcome to recommend fresh approaches to maximize the benefits that can derive from a results-oriented, cooperative effort in the fight against HIV/AIDS.
This paper describes the challenges ministries of finance and planning face in responding to the HIV/AIDS epidemic.
The accompanying tables provide background data on health spending in AGOA countries; background data on successful applications for grants from the Global Fund to Fights AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and grants received by AGOA countries under the World Bank Multisectoral AIDS Program (MAP) for Africa; and background data on HIV/AIDS prevalence. These data may help orient and clarify discussion of progress and objectives.
This paper addresses challenges faced by ministries of trade and commerce in addressing the HIV/AIDS crisis, particularly in the areas of intellectual rights, trade practices, tourism, the world of work, and international competitiveness.
This paper discusses ways in which the private business sector is responding to the issue of HIV/AIDS.
This report includes results from 69 countries, including most low- and middle-income countries with more than 10,000 people living with HIV in 2005. The information presented here relies on national service statistics and expert assessment. These data focus on the quantity of services provided and do not address the quality of those services. In many countries, national consensus workshops were held to validate the data. Estimates of the population in need of each service have been derived from demographic and epidemiological statistics and may not correspond to national estimates of need, but are used here to present coverage estimates that are comparable across countries and regions. For countries that did not participate in the survey, we have used regional averages to estimate the number of people served. The results should be interpreted with caution, but are useful in indicating the progress made in the last two years toward future goals. For all regions combined, prevention services are provided to about 33% of sex workers, 9% of men who have sex with men, 34% of prisoners, and 16% of children living on the street. Twenty-six countries reported having prevention programs for injecting drug users, most from Eastern Europe and Asia. The most common type of program was information and education on risk reduction, which is provided for about one million injecting drug users. Needle and syringe exchange programs reach less than half as many (400,000) and drug substitution programs reach only about 32,000. Estimates of the number of injecting drug users are highly uncertain, but coverage of harm reduction programs is still low in most lowand middle-income countries. In short, significant progress has been made in most areas since 2001, but the only programs that provide access to most people who need services are AIDS education in the schools and condoms. Some regions have achieved universal access for some services, such as ART in Latin America. In most other areas, greater effort will be required to expand services to meet the goal of universal access.
Excel file with the country annex tables to accompany the document, "Coverage of selected services for HIV/AIDS prevention, care, and treatment in low- and middle-income countries in 2005."
FINAL HIV Coverage Survey 2005 - Country Annex Tables.xls
This paper provides an overview of the rationale for integrating family planning into HIV programs, as well as lists of resources that can be used for policy development and policy implementation to integrate FP into HIV policies and programs. It is a companion document to the CD-ROM of the same name, which contains the actual resources listed. The paper is divided into seven sections: 1. International conventions (FP and HIV-related service integration) 2. National HIV policies and FP 3. VCT policies and FP 4. PMTCT policies and FP 5. ART policies and FP 6. Operational policies 7. Additional resources
To learn more about how countries have been addressing RH-and family planning (FP) in particular-commodities and where significant advocacy efforts have occurred, the POLICY Project, the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), and United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) undertook a global survey of local and international, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and public officials. The survey’s goal was to gather information on countries' processes and activities aimed at meeting current and future contraceptive commodity needs. This report focuses principally on the results of the survey; however, it also includes complementary findings from additional research on recent and current CS activities.
RHCS Paper Final.pdf
32-page booklet summarizing the Malawi National HIV/AIDS Policy developed and printed with assistance from the USAID-funded POLICY Project, UNDP, and UNAIDS.
Despite some attempts to integrate family planning with sexually transmitted infection (STI) and HIV/AIDS services, policies and programs continue to treat them as unrelated areas of intervention. Furthermore, international attention to the HIV/AIDS pandemic has overshadowed attention to family planning, particularly in Africa where the HIV/AIDS epidemic is most acute. Yet family planning is closely related to two components of HIV/AIDS services: prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) and voluntary counseling and testing (VCT). Is there a role for family planning in the context of HIV/AIDS programs? This paper analyzes how international guidelines, national HIV/AIDS policies and PMTCT and VCT policies have addressed family planning in 16 high-HIV prevalence countries. It also describes major gaps in the various countries’ policy environment.
To begin to protect young men and young women from this heightened risk of HIV/AIDS, it is important that policymakers and program managers gain a better understanding of transactional sex among youth. Policymakers and program managers need answers to questions such as: Are youth at higher risk of engaging in transactional sex than other groups? What factors influence youth to engage in transactional sex? And, what subgroups of youth are particularly vulnerable to engaging in transactional sex? This study seeks to answer these questions by exploring whether adolescent boys and girls are at higher risk for engaging in transactional sex than older men and women by analyzing data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) from 12 sub-Saharan African countries including Benin, Burkina Faso, Central African Republic (CAR), Chad, Guinea, Kenya, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Togo, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. We also examine the relationship between young men and young women’s individual socio-demographic characteristics and the probability that they will engage in the exchange of sex for money.