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Browse POLICY Project (1995-2006) Materials

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List entries are alphabetical by title and contain the title, abstract, language, and then the filename which is hyperlinked and will open in a new browser window. Many files are PDFs but some of the older ones are Word documents.

Bangladesh

  • English
    ARH_Bangladesh.pdf
  • The target of opportunity (TOO) in Bangladesh sought to strengthen women’s reproductive health using an innovative approach—repositioning family planning as a key component of safe motherhood programs. Family planning in the postpartum period not only allows couples to prevent unintended pregnancies, it enables women to plan and space births, which helps the mothers’ bodies recover before having another child. This limits the total number of pregnancies per woman and reduces the potential for higher-risk pregnancies. Promoting family planning in the postpartum is a critical strategy for Bangladesh because it has an estimated maternal mortality rate of 380—and, given the country’s population size, this places Bangladesh among the 10 countries with the highest number of maternal deaths in the world. Other priority action areas included promotion of safe motherhood practices for young couples, especially given early marriages in Bangladesh, and implementation of the Ministry of Health (MOH) draft National Maternal Health Strategy.
    English
    BangladeshTOO 12-19-06 FINAL.pdf
  • As HIV/AIDS has evolved from being viewed as a public health issue-to be dealt with primarily by doctors and scientific researchers-to being recognized as an epidemic that affects every aspect of a country's national and socioeconomic development, the need for strong commitment and leadership has become even more apparent. The need for strong leadership is acutely felt in low prevalence countries where there is still an opportunity to contain the spread of the epidemic. But for many reasons, isolating, defining, and measuring what "political commitment" really is has been difficult. This paper reflects on key questions surrounding political commitment and leadership in the HIV/AIDS arena. It begins with a review of what we know about political commitment today-why it matters, what its characteristics are, how it has been measured to date, and how it can be strengthened. The paper then turns attention to the multi-country pilot assessment study in Asia, reviewing common themes from the country studies, analyzing lessons learned, and providing concluding thoughts and recommendations for future study and action.
    English
    PC_Synthesis.pdf
  • Political commitment and leadership are essential for creating an enabling environment that promotes the development and growth of appropriate, sustainable HIV/AIDS policies and programs. The need for strong leadership is acutely felt in low HIV prevalence countries where there is still an opportunity to contain the spread of the epidemic. However, “political commitment” is a term that is often used without a clear sense of what it means, how it affects programs, when it can be most effective, and how it can be strengthened by advocates and policymakers. Building on experience with monitoring national program efforts in the family planning/reproductive health, maternal health, and HIV/AIDS fields, the POLICY Project developed a questionnaire that assesses various aspects of political commitment. POLICY then worked with local counterparts to pilot test the questionnaire in four low-prevalence countries in Asia. The pilot studies show that the political commitment assessment guide can serve as a useful tool for helping HIV/AIDS advocates and policymakers analyze a country’s national political commitment and leadership for confronting HIV/AIDS. In-country researchers can use the assessment guide to tailor questions to their country’s unique context. Such research can lay the foundation for identifying areas of strength and weakness in the country’s HIV/AIDS program and highlighting areas for future advocacy and policy change efforts.
    English
    ACF1AA.pdf
  • Worldwide, over 500,000 women and girls die of complications related to pregnancy and childbirth each year. The tragedy - and opportunity - is that most of these deaths can be prevented with cost-effective health care services. POLICY's MNPI series provides country-specific data on maternal and neonatal health programs in more than 30 developing countries. Based on a study conducted by the Futures Group and funded through the MEASURE Evaluation Project, the MNPI is a tool that can be used to: Assess current health care services; Identify program strengths and weaknesses; Plan strategies to address deficiencies; Encourage political and popular support for appropriate action; and Track progress over time.
    English
    Bangladesh_MNPI.pdf
  • Worldwide, over 500,000 women and girls die of complications related to pregnancy and childbirth each year. The tragedy - and opportunity - is that most of these deaths can be prevented with cost-effective health care services. POLICY's MNPI series provides country-specific data on maternal and neonatal health programs in more than 30 developing countries. Based on a study conducted by the Futures Group and funded through the MEASURE Evaluation Project, the MNPI is a tool that can be used to: Assess current health care services; identify program strengths and weaknesses; plan strategies to address deficiencies; encourage political and popular support for appropriate action; and track progress over time.
    English
    Bangladesh_MNPI_2002.pdf
  • English
    2005Bangladesh.pdf
  • This document is the actual National Health Policy for Bangladesh.
    English
    Health_Policy_for_Bangladesh.pdf
  • Este documento presenta información de algunos est
    Spanish
    op-02es.pdf
  • The 1994 ICPD intensified the worldwide focus on reproductive health policies and programs. Officials in many countries have worked to adopt the recommendations in the ICPD Programme of Action and to shift their population policies and programs from an emphasis on achieving demographic targets for reduced population growth to a focus on improving the reproductive health of their population. This paper presents information from case studies carried out in Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Jordan, Ghana, Senegal, Jamaica, and Peru to assess each nation's process and progress in moving toward a reproductive health focus. The case studies show that within their unique social, cultural, and programmatic contexts, the eight countries have made significant progress in placing reproductive health on the national health agenda. All countries have adopted the ICPD definition of reproductive health either entirely or in part. Policy dialogue has occurred at the highest levels in all countries. The countries have also achieved considerable progress in broadening participation in reproductive health policymaking. Bangladesh, Senegal, and Ghana have been particularly effective in involving NGOs and civil society organizations in policy and program development. In some of the other countries, however, the level of participation and political support for reproductive health may not be sufficient to advance easily to the next crucial stage of implementation. The case studies indicate almost uniformly that countries are grappling with the issues of setting priorities, financing, and implementing reproductive health interventions. Bangladesh has made the greatest progress in these areas while India, Nepal, Ghana, Senegal, Jamaica, and Peru are beginning to take steps toward implementation of reproductive health activities. Jordan continues to focus primarily on family planning. Several challenges face these countries as they continue to implement reproductive heath programs. These challenges include improving knowledge and support of reproductive health programs among stakeholders; planning for integration and decentralized services; strengthening human resources; improving quality of care; addressing legal, regulatory, and social issues; clarifying the role of donors; and maintaining a long-term perspective regarding the implementation of the ICPD agenda. Despite many encouraging signs, limited progress has been achieved in actually implementing the Programme of Action; this finding is neither surprising nor unexpected. It took more than a generation to achieve the widespread adoption and implementation of family planning programs worldwide, and that task is far from complete. The key to continuing progress lies in setting priorities, developing budgets, phasing-in improvements, and crafting strategies for implementation of reproductive health interventions.
    English
    op-02.pdf
  • Ce document présente des informations provenant de
    French
    op-02fr.pdf
  • This brief examines the extent to which the 1994 ICPD has shaped reproductive health policies and programs in Bangladesh, Ghana, India, Jamaica, Jordan, Nepal, Peru, and Senegal. Within their unique social, cultural, and programmatic contexts, the eight countries have made significant progress in placing reproductive health on their respective national health policy agendas. The progress illustrated by the case studies is a logical beginning for defining and adopting reproductive health policies and principles, while building political and popular support. However, whereas well-established reproductive health services, such as family planning and maternal and child health, have remained high priorities, the case studies indicate that a continued effort will be required to place more sensitive issues, such as gender-based violence and reproductive rights, on the policy agenda. In addition, in some countries, a greater level of participation and political support for reproductive health may need to be cultivated before the countries are able to advance to the next crucial stage of implementation. Countries also need sufficient financial resources to implement the expanded reproductive health programs and services envisioned by the ICPD—resources that most respondents suggested were not immediately forthcoming.
    English
    pm-05.pdf
  • This brief summarizes findings a study on the transition from home to clinic-based services in rural Bangladesh. It documents how communities and programs are responding to policy changes in a dynamic service environment and social context; how women who previously relied on home delivery now obtain contraceptives; how clients and families are responding to NGOs’ efforts to improve quality and cost recovery; and how clients are adapting to the new program norms.
    English
    pm-08.pdf