Browse POLICY Project (1995-2006) Materials
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EthiopiaMore recent Ethiopia publications are available.
The Fourth Edition of "AIDS in Ethiopia" is an update on the current information available on the HIV/AIDS situation in Ethiopia. The data upon which this edition is based has doubled in the past year. The third edition of "AIDS in Ethiopia (2000) used 15 surveillance sites. The current version is based on data from 34 sites, of which 28 are urban sites and 6 are rural sites. A special national level expert group meeting was convened to arrive at the national prevalence rate using the sentinel surveillance data. As a result of discussions of the expert group, Estie, a site formerly presumed to be a rural site, with an HIV prevalence rate of 10.7 percent in 2001, was reclassified as an urban site. This reclassification of Estie led to a 2001 estimate of HIV prevalence of 6.6 percent. The national adult HIV prevalence of 6.6 percent is less than the prevalence of 7.3 percent presented in the third edition. It is to be noted that this change in national HIV prevalence does not imply that the HIV epidemic in Ethiopia is declining. The current estimate is merely a result of more extensive surveillance data and the reclassification of Estie as an urban site. Urban HIV prevalence rates continue to be high at 13.7 percent while the HIV prevalence rate for rural areas remains relatively low at 3.7 percent. HIV prevalence for Addis Ababa is estimated to be 15.6 percent. The number of persons living with HIV/AIDS in 2001 is estimated at 2.2 million, including 2 million adults and 200,000 children. Approximately 10 percent of these or 219,400 are full blown AIDS cases. The highest prevalence of HIV is seen in the group 15 to 24 years of age, representing "recent infections". The age and sex distribution of reported AIDS cases shows that about 91 percent of infections occur among adults between 15 and 49 years. Given that the age range encompasses the most economically productive segment of the population, the epidemic impacts negatively on labor productivity. Work time is lost through frequent absenteeism, and decreased capacity to do normal work as the disease advances. There are also social consequences of the epidemic as caregivers and income generating members of the family die leaving behind orphans and other dependents. These events lead to an aggravation of the problems of poverty and social instability. The data also show that the number of females infected between 15 and 19 years is much higher than the number of males in the same age group. This discrepancy is attributable to earlier sexual activity among young females with older male partners. Although the government has made progress in the areas of education, access to health care and economic development, the AIDS epidemic is eroding those gains. The limited empirical data that is available shows that hospital bed occupancy rates for HIV/AIDS cases are increasing. The health care sector, military and the mobile work force are likely to be significantly affected. In view of the above issues, several measures need to be taken. Data from more rural sites needs to be included to represent rural areas more effectively. Attention to be focused on preventing the new generation from acquiring the infection, as they represent a "window of hope". More empirical research on the economic and social impact of HIV/AIDS needs to be conducted. There is a need to mobilize the efforts of the government, non-governmental organizations, community based organizations and other civil society organizations in providing care and support to people infected and affected by HIV/AIDS.
Ethiopias 1994 National Population Policy sets ambitious goals for 2015. However, most of the components of the policy have not been implemented and progress has been slow. In early 2004, the Ministry of Health (MOH), the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), and other donors discussed the need to update the National Population Policy and create a Reproductive Health Strategic Framework. This activity was to be conducted jointly with major donors and stakeholders. The strategic framework was to address all areas of reproductive health, including family planning, safe motherhood, postabortion care, adolescent reproductive health, and possibly HIV/AIDS. At the same time, the government of Ethiopia was developing plans to achieve the Millennium Development Goals. The MOH was requested to indicate what actions and how much funding would be required to achieve the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) for safe motherhood. The Allocate Model was applied in Ethiopia to provide a thorough test of the model; to prepare an improved RH action plan with increased efficiency in the use of funding resources; and to foster dialogue among all stakeholders regarding RH priorities.
Ethiopia Allocate case study.doc
This study is an investigation into the status and trends of family planning (FP) and reproductive health (RH) programs within the context of Ethiopia’s heightening HIV/AIDS epidemic. By helping individuals and couples control the number and timing of pregnancies, family planning provides far-reaching benefits (Dayaratna et al., 2000). In addition, by reducing unintended and high-risk pregnancies, family planning can lower the instances of maternal and child injury, illness, and death associated with childbirth and unsafe abortions (Shane, 1997). Ethiopia has not been able to expand FP services to satisfy the increasing unmet need in the country, and its maternal mortality ratio (MMR) ranks as one of the world’s highest. At the same time, Ethiopia is among the countries that have been hardest hit by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The findings of this study are expected to inform policy and program managers about the various dimensions of HIV/AIDS and family planning in Ethiopia.
Worldwide, over 500,000 women and girls die of complications related to pregnancy and childbirth each year. The tragedy - and opportunity - is that most of these deaths can be prevented with cost-effective health care services. POLICY's MNPI series provides country-specific data on maternal and neonatal health programs in more than 30 developing countries. Based on a study conducted by the Futures Group and funded through the MEASURE Evaluation Project, the MNPI is a tool that can be used to: Assess current health care services; Identify program strengths and weaknesses; Plan strategies to address deficiencies; Encourage political and popular support for appropriate action; and Track progress over time.
Worldwide, over 500,000 women and girls die of complications related to pregnancy and childbirth each year. The tragedy - and opportunity - is that most of these deaths can be prevented with cost-effective health care services. POLICY's MNPI series provides country-specific data on maternal and neonatal health programs in more than 30 developing countries. Based on a study conducted by the Futures Group and funded through the MEASURE Evaluation Project, the MNPI is a tool that can be used to: Assess current health care services; identify program strengths and weaknesses; plan strategies to address deficiencies; encourage political and popular support for appropriate action; and track progress over time.
The POLICY Project prepared this paper as part of a study of the status of family planning in four countries hit hard by HIV/AIDS: Ethiopia, Kenya, Zambia, and Cambodia.
Working Paper 17- FP HIV Integration Synthesis.doc
Despite some attempts to integrate family planning with sexually transmitted infection (STI) and HIV/AIDS services, policies and programs continue to treat them as unrelated areas of intervention. Furthermore, international attention to the HIV/AIDS pandemic has overshadowed attention to family planning, particularly in Africa where the HIV/AIDS epidemic is most acute. Yet family planning is closely related to two components of HIV/AIDS services: prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) and voluntary counseling and testing (VCT). Is there a role for family planning in the context of HIV/AIDS programs? This paper analyzes how international guidelines, national HIV/AIDS policies and PMTCT and VCT policies have addressed family planning in 16 high-HIV prevalence countries. It also describes major gaps in the various countries’ policy environment.
The Family Planning Program Effort Index (FPE) is a composite measure of family planning program efforts using the expert judgment of people who are very knowledgeable about the family planning program in a country or a region. It tests how program efforts interact with socioeconomic settings to increase contraceptive use and lower fertility rates. This is the fifth cycle to be conducted in Ethiopia. The FPE was previously conducted in 1982, 1989, 1994 and 1999. The study is based on an extensive questionnaire containing 125 items. Respondents are requested to address each one of these items. The items are coded and combined to give 30 program elements. These 30 program elements in turn are organized into four major categories: 1. Policy and stage setting activities. 2. Service and service related activities. 3. Evaluation and record keeping. 4. Availability of fertility control methods.