Browse POLICY Project (1995-2006) Materials
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Country and regional assignments reflect those made at the time of production and may not correspond to current USAID designations.
List entries are alphabetical by title and contain the title, abstract, language, and then the filename which is hyperlinked and will open in a new browser window. Many files are PDFs but some of the older ones are Word documents.
GhanaMore recent Ghana publications are available.
In Ghana there is a dearth of studies on the economic impact of HIV/AIDS. In recognition of the possible consequences of HIV/AIDS on business concerns, a desk review of existing data was carried out. In addition, a number of senior managers were interviewed to ascertain the measures that have been put in place in various institutions to prevent and control HIV infections among their staff and to minimize the economic impact of the disease on the business. The purpose of this initial review was twofold: i. to determine what additional information is needed to facilitate the development of an advocacy tool for the sensitization of management at the workplace; and ii. to encourage various business institutions to assess in realistic manner what HIV means to them and to develop an appropriate response.
This booklet examines the impact of rapid population growth on development and illustrates how a successful population management program would provide significant economic and social benefits to Ghana, thereby improving the quality of life for all Ghanaians. The booklet is based on analysis conducted using the Resource for Awareness of Population Impacts on Development (RAPID) model.
This report describes networking among NGOs in five districts of Ghana's Eastern Region.
This briefing book is intended to provide information about the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Ghana. This material is also available as a slide show or interactive computer presentation. The information is provided in four sections: Background: What we know about HIV/AIDS in Ghana today Projections: The number of people who might develop AIDS in the future Impacts: The social and economic impacts of AIDS Interventions: What needs to be done to prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS Policy: Policy issues and the National Strategic Framework, and institutional structure that have been put into place to combat the epidemic
This report is designed as an advocacy tool to assist policymakers and other stakeholders in stimulating dialogue about sustainable, contextually appropriate responses to HIV/AIDS in Ghana. The report seeks to provide an overview of the current HIV/AIDS situation in Ghana; project the future direction of the epidemic using the best available data; highlight some of the key social and economic impacts of the pandemic; and discuss strategies that will be needed to reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS, improve care and support, and mitigate associated impacts.
Worldwide, over 500,000 women and girls die of complications related to pregnancy and childbirth each year. The tragedy - and opportunity - is that most of these deaths can be prevented with cost-effective health care services. POLICY's MNPI series provides country-specific data on maternal and neonatal health programs in more than 30 developing countries. Based on a study conducted by the Futures Group and funded through the MEASURE Evaluation Project, the MNPI is a tool that can be used to: Assess current health care services; Identify program strengths and weaknesses; Plan strategies to address deficiencies; Encourage political and popular support for appropriate action; and Track progress over time.
Worldwide, over 500,000 women and girls die of complications related to pregnancy and childbirth each year. The tragedy - and opportunity - is that most of these deaths can be prevented with cost-effective health care services. POLICY's MNPI series provides country-specific data on maternal and neonatal health programs in more than 30 developing countries. Based on a study conducted by the Futures Group and funded through the MEASURE Evaluation Project, the MNPI is a tool that can be used to: Assess current health care services; identify program strengths and weaknesses; plan strategies to address deficiencies; encourage political and popular support for appropriate action; and track progress over time.
HIV/AIDS has compelled individuals and societies to re-evaluate their attitudes, prejudices and behaviours underscoring the need for an enlightened public policy that promotes support and care rather than coercion, tolerance and compassion rather than discrimination, protection of human rights and dignity rather than stigmatisation and exclusion. It is hoped that this policy document, directed to all cooperating partners, including Ministries, Departments and Agencies (MDAs), the private sector, PLWHA, NGOs, CBOs, and civil society organisations at large, religious bodies, institutions of learning and development partners provides such a positive response. The Government of Ghana expects all sectors to be involved in the implementation of programmes.
Reproductive Tract Infections (RTIs) are being increasingly recognised as a global health problem with serious impacts on individual women and men, their families and communities. RTIs, generally seen as a ‘silent’ epidemic can have severe consequences including infertility, ectopic pregnancy, chronic pelvic pain, miscarriage, neonatal blindness, increased risk of HIV infection and even death. But the consequences of RTIs extend beyond the realms of health. The morbidity associated with RTIs affect economic productivity and the quality of life of many individual men, women and ultimately of whole communities. The Health Sector of the Government of Ghana in collaboration with WHO and other Partners initiated a process in 2000 with the aim of assisting the Sector programme managers in prioritising interventions for addressing and repositioning RTIs.
Despite some attempts to integrate family planning with sexually transmitted infection (STI) and HIV/AIDS services, policies and programs continue to treat them as unrelated areas of intervention. Furthermore, international attention to the HIV/AIDS pandemic has overshadowed attention to family planning, particularly in Africa where the HIV/AIDS epidemic is most acute. Yet family planning is closely related to two components of HIV/AIDS services: prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) and voluntary counseling and testing (VCT). Is there a role for family planning in the context of HIV/AIDS programs? This paper analyzes how international guidelines, national HIV/AIDS policies and PMTCT and VCT policies have addressed family planning in 16 high-HIV prevalence countries. It also describes major gaps in the various countries’ policy environment.
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The 1994 ICPD intensified the worldwide focus on reproductive health policies and programs. Officials in many countries have worked to adopt the recommendations in the ICPD Programme of Action and to shift their population policies and programs from an emphasis on achieving demographic targets for reduced population growth to a focus on improving the reproductive health of their population. This paper presents information from case studies carried out in Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Jordan, Ghana, Senegal, Jamaica, and Peru to assess each nation's process and progress in moving toward a reproductive health focus. The case studies show that within their unique social, cultural, and programmatic contexts, the eight countries have made significant progress in placing reproductive health on the national health agenda. All countries have adopted the ICPD definition of reproductive health either entirely or in part. Policy dialogue has occurred at the highest levels in all countries. The countries have also achieved considerable progress in broadening participation in reproductive health policymaking. Bangladesh, Senegal, and Ghana have been particularly effective in involving NGOs and civil society organizations in policy and program development. In some of the other countries, however, the level of participation and political support for reproductive health may not be sufficient to advance easily to the next crucial stage of implementation. The case studies indicate almost uniformly that countries are grappling with the issues of setting priorities, financing, and implementing reproductive health interventions. Bangladesh has made the greatest progress in these areas while India, Nepal, Ghana, Senegal, Jamaica, and Peru are beginning to take steps toward implementation of reproductive health activities. Jordan continues to focus primarily on family planning. Several challenges face these countries as they continue to implement reproductive heath programs. These challenges include improving knowledge and support of reproductive health programs among stakeholders; planning for integration and decentralized services; strengthening human resources; improving quality of care; addressing legal, regulatory, and social issues; clarifying the role of donors; and maintaining a long-term perspective regarding the implementation of the ICPD agenda. Despite many encouraging signs, limited progress has been achieved in actually implementing the Programme of Action; this finding is neither surprising nor unexpected. It took more than a generation to achieve the widespread adoption and implementation of family planning programs worldwide, and that task is far from complete. The key to continuing progress lies in setting priorities, developing budgets, phasing-in improvements, and crafting strategies for implementation of reproductive health interventions.
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This brief examines the extent to which the 1994 ICPD has shaped reproductive health policies and programs in Bangladesh, Ghana, India, Jamaica, Jordan, Nepal, Peru, and Senegal. Within their unique social, cultural, and programmatic contexts, the eight countries have made significant progress in placing reproductive health on their respective national health policy agendas. The progress illustrated by the case studies is a logical beginning for defining and adopting reproductive health policies and principles, while building political and popular support. However, whereas well-established reproductive health services, such as family planning and maternal and child health, have remained high priorities, the case studies indicate that a continued effort will be required to place more sensitive issues, such as gender-based violence and reproductive rights, on the policy agenda. In addition, in some countries, a greater level of participation and political support for reproductive health may need to be cultivated before the countries are able to advance to the next crucial stage of implementation. Countries also need sufficient financial resources to implement the expanded reproductive health programs and services envisioned by the ICPD—resources that most respondents suggested were not immediately forthcoming.
The countries of West Africa have some of the highest levels of unmet need for family planning in the world. During the six-year period (1995ý2000) following the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, there were an estimated 12 million unintended pregnancies in the 18 West Africa Regional Program (WARP) countries. Yet family planning programs are currently low on most national agendas and there is no concerted effort to address the expressed need for family planning. To reduce the health and development consequences of unintended fertility in West Africa, policymakers and planners need to study the characteristics of women with a demonstrated unmet need for family planning and use that information to improve policies and programs. This series of briefing papers is designed to contribute to that effort by offering some perspectives on the nature and dimensions of unmet need based on the findings of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) in 11 West African countries: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Cýte dýIvoire, Ghana, Guinea, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, and Togo. This brief focuses on Benin.
This report presents information regarding practicing midwives’ skill sets, scopes and protocols of practice, and referral systems to identify gaps in access and service delivery, legal and operational barriers to practice, and geographical disparities in coverage. These data provide important direction for policymakers to increase the ability of Ghanaian women to access comprehensive services and strengthen midwives’ ability to provide those services. Midwives are important providers of reproductive healthcare in Ghana. There are more than 3,379 midwives in Ghana compared with fewer than 2,000 physicians. While midwives practice throughout the country, physicians tend to be clustered in large cities. As a result, midwives provide the majority of antenatal, delivery, and newborn and postpartum care, including emergency obstetric care, especially in rural areas. Further, midwives provide family planning services, postabortion care, treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), nutrition and breastfeeding counseling, and child health services. The purpose of the Midwife Mapping Project was to assess the accessibility to comprehensive reproductive healthcare, including routine and emergency obstetric care, as provided by midwives, as well as to learn about midwives’ experiences in service provision throughout Ghana. The study included three complementary research methodologies: • Policy environment analysis • Survey of practicing midwives and geospatial mapping • Focus group discussions (FGDs) with practicing and non-practicing midwives
Ghana Midwife Mapping final.pdf