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Browse POLICY Project (1995-2006) Materials

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Country Reports

  • Romania has been undergoing a series of health financing reforms designed to reduce heavy dependence on government financing, central planning, and health services monopolized by the state. These reforms include a national health insurance scheme, contraceptive security initiatives, and revolving drug funds at the subnational level. Contraceptive security is important as Romania is trying to shift from a reliance on abortion to more widespread use of contraception. In August 2000, the government approved policies regarding contraceptive security. This study responds to the aforementioned policy needs by presenting findings from a market segmentation analysis of the Romanian FP market. Specifically, the study identifies and defines market segments for FP and presents policy options for better targeting of public and private sector resources.
    English
    Rom_MarkSeg.pdf
  • In Ghana there is a dearth of studies on the economic impact of HIV/AIDS. In recognition of the possible consequences of HIV/AIDS on business concerns, a desk review of existing data was carried out. In addition, a number of senior managers were interviewed to ascertain the measures that have been put in place in various institutions to prevent and control HIV infections among their staff and to minimize the economic impact of the disease on the business. The purpose of this initial review was twofold: i. to determine what additional information is needed to facilitate the development of an advocacy tool for the sensitization of management at the workplace; and ii. to encourage various business institutions to assess in realistic manner what HIV means to them and to develop an appropriate response.
    English
    Ghanaecimb.pdf
  • The Fourth Edition of "AIDS in Ethiopia" is an update on the current information available on the HIV/AIDS situation in Ethiopia. The data upon which this edition is based has doubled in the past year. The third edition of "AIDS in Ethiopia (2000) used 15 surveillance sites. The current version is based on data from 34 sites, of which 28 are urban sites and 6 are rural sites. A special national level expert group meeting was convened to arrive at the national prevalence rate using the sentinel surveillance data. As a result of discussions of the expert group, Estie, a site formerly presumed to be a rural site, with an HIV prevalence rate of 10.7 percent in 2001, was reclassified as an urban site. This reclassification of Estie led to a 2001 estimate of HIV prevalence of 6.6 percent. The national adult HIV prevalence of 6.6 percent is less than the prevalence of 7.3 percent presented in the third edition. It is to be noted that this change in national HIV prevalence does not imply that the HIV epidemic in Ethiopia is declining. The current estimate is merely a result of more extensive surveillance data and the reclassification of Estie as an urban site. Urban HIV prevalence rates continue to be high at 13.7 percent while the HIV prevalence rate for rural areas remains relatively low at 3.7 percent. HIV prevalence for Addis Ababa is estimated to be 15.6 percent. The number of persons living with HIV/AIDS in 2001 is estimated at 2.2 million, including 2 million adults and 200,000 children. Approximately 10 percent of these or 219,400 are full blown AIDS cases. The highest prevalence of HIV is seen in the group 15 to 24 years of age, representing "recent infections". The age and sex distribution of reported AIDS cases shows that about 91 percent of infections occur among adults between 15 and 49 years. Given that the age range encompasses the most economically productive segment of the population, the epidemic impacts negatively on labor productivity. Work time is lost through frequent absenteeism, and decreased capacity to do normal work as the disease advances. There are also social consequences of the epidemic as caregivers and income generating members of the family die leaving behind orphans and other dependents. These events lead to an aggravation of the problems of poverty and social instability. The data also show that the number of females infected between 15 and 19 years is much higher than the number of males in the same age group. This discrepancy is attributable to earlier sexual activity among young females with older male partners. Although the government has made progress in the areas of education, access to health care and economic development, the AIDS epidemic is eroding those gains. The limited empirical data that is available shows that hospital bed occupancy rates for HIV/AIDS cases are increasing. The health care sector, military and the mobile work force are likely to be significantly affected. In view of the above issues, several measures need to be taken. Data from more rural sites needs to be included to represent rural areas more effectively. Attention to be focused on preventing the new generation from acquiring the infection, as they represent a "window of hope". More empirical research on the economic and social impact of HIV/AIDS needs to be conducted. There is a need to mobilize the efforts of the government, non-governmental organizations, community based organizations and other civil society organizations in providing care and support to people infected and affected by HIV/AIDS.
    English
    ETH_AIM_2002.pdf
  • AIM booklet
    English
    Ethaimbk.pdf
  • AIM projections and impacts.
    English
    AIDS_in_Kenya.pdf
  • Over two decades since the first AIDS case was described in Kenya, HIV/AIDS still remains a huge problem for the country in its efforts for social and economic development. Responses to the pandemic have evolved over time as people became aware of this new disease, as they experienced illness and death among family members, and as services have developed to confront this epidemic. Initially many segments of society expressed denial of the disease. Early in the epidemic in Kenya political commitment was limited. While awareness of AIDS has been nearly universal for more than a decade, misconceptions still abound and many still have not dealt with this disease at a personal or community level. The purpose of AIDS in Kenya has been to inform leadership and citizens of the country about the epidemic, make projections about its impact, and describe policy. Emphasis of the publication now shifts; this edition: " describes the level and trends of HIV infection; " assesses the breadth and depth of knowledge of HIV; " identifies behavioural patterns associated with these trends; " provides information on HIV prevalence from VCT clients, STI patients and blood donors; " describes the scale-up in HIV prevention services; " analyses the interaction of the TB and HIV epidemics; " describes the expansion of HIV care and treatment; and " assesses the socio-economic impact and costs of AIDS.
    English
    KEN_AIDS_7thEd.pdf
  • A status report on the sociopolitical, economic, and policy climate on drug availability for People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and recommendations for future access.
    English
    NIG_ADOI.pdf
  • English
    ARH_Bangladesh.pdf
  • English
    ARH_Cambodia.pdf
  • English
    ARH_Egypt.pdf
  • English
    ARH_India.pdf
  • English
    ARH_Indonesia.pdf
  • English
    ARH_Jordan.pdf
  • English
    ARH_Morocco.pdf
  • English
    ARH_Nepal.pdf
  • English
    ARH_Pakistan.pdf
  • English
    ARH_Philippines.pdf
  • English
    ARH_Sri_Lanka.pdf
  • English
    ARH_Vietnam.pdf
  • English
    ARH_Yemen.pdf
  • The National Centre for Youth Development (NCYD) created the Jamaica Youth Programmatic Inventory (YPI) as a database of active youth-serving organizations. The goal of the NCYD in collecting this information is to facilitate a national process of coordination and planning across sectors in an attempt to identify where gaps may exist in the array of programmes existing to address young people’s needs. The data was collected and analysed at two distinct levels: the organizational level, and the level of programmes directed at young people. 141 organizations are included in the YPI database encompassing 451 programmes in 358 locations serving hundreds of thousands of young people in every parish on the island.
    English
    JAM_YPI.pdf
  • At the start of the new century, Romania faces slow economic growth, rising poverty levels, and low health status, among other challenges. However, certain positive changes have occurred, notably improvements in reproductive health (RH). In August 2000, the government approved policies that paved the way for its groundbreaking approach to contraceptive security. These policies defined contraceptive security in terms of government financing for contraceptive commodities, targeting free public sector contraceptives to vulnerable segments of the population, establishing revolving funds to enable judets (districts) to purchase and sell contraceptives locally to nontargeted clients, and ensuring access especially in rural areas. Ministry of Health and Family (MOHF), in collaboration with the POLICY Project, undertook an assessment in March–May 2001 of how well the new national contraceptive security policies and laws were being translated into action at the service delivery level. Results of the assessment are presented in this paper. The paper starts with a socioeconomic and RH background and policy and program context. It then highlights operational constraints and other findings from the assessment using questions aimed at stimulating dialogue on policy barriers and their implications. These discussions are followed by policy options that might be considered in addressing the various operational barriers. The concluding section summarizes the key policy concerns and identifies what the authors believe are the most critical issues and policy options.
    English
    Rom_CS.pdf
  • As part of the POLICY Project’s investigations into the delivery of family planning (FP) services in the context of high HIV prevalence, six focus group discussions were held in Cambodia in December 2004. The aim of these discussions was to document the views of FP users, service providers, and HIV-positive (HIV+) women on the accessibility and quality of FP services, particularly in light of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Cambodia.
    English
    CamFP-HIV_FGDs.pdf
  • Involving men in reproductive healthcare could help Cambodia achieve some major development goals, such as a decreased maternal mortality rate and an increased contraceptive prevalence rate. Involving men could also help reduce the overall prevalence of HIV/AIDS—an outcome possible only if men are involved not just as clients of RH care but also as partners, service providers, policymakers, teachers, and project managers. Until today, male involvement in RH in Cambodia has been relatively underdeveloped. Despite the availability of a few contraceptive methods for men, maternal and child health (MCH) programs provide most RH care, strategic plans and services lack indicators for men, and most service providers are not equipped or trained to accommodate male clients. RH facilities tend to be female-oriented; as a result, men are often reluctant to avail themselves of services. Men’s reluctance to access RH care can also mean that barriers to accessing health, such as distance and cost, which affect both men and women, are even more influential in preventing men from seeking RH counseling or treatment or even seeking services as partners. To expand and strengthen male involvement in reproductive health in Cambodia, this report offers the following recommendations: • A set of guidelines to mainstream male involvement need to be developed and distributed. • Agencies interested in implementing male involvement in reproductive health must plan for a long-term commitment. • Campaigns need to be implemented that educate seemingly “low-risk” social and demographic groups. • Current education campaigns need to be reviewed in the context of male involvement and should not, for example, reinforce gender inequities or the notion that condom use is restricted only to high-risk situations. • Existing services should be made more “male-friendly,” with service providers undergoing additional training and engaging in effective outreach activities. • The private health sector should be directly involved in efforts that foster male involvement.
    English
    MaleInvolv_Cam.pdf
  • This is a compilation of significant information and data on the current situation of child survival in Nigeria. Facts have been drawn from a wide range of sources including the Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (1999), Population Bureau, Federal Office of Statistics, National Planning Commission, UNICEF’s Children’s and Women’s Rights in Nigeria: A Wake-up Call—Situation Assessment and Analysis (2001), survey reports, academic articles, policy and programme documents, budget documents, and publications from development partners. This document is intended to serve as a concise public source of data on the major child survival issues in Nigeria and to assist policymakers to “put children first” in national priorities and in the design of public policies.
    English
    NIG_CSrevised.pdf
  • Since the 1960s, the Ministry of Health (MOH) of Turkey has enjoyed the benefits of external assistance for its family planning (FP) program especially from the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). The MOH has since developed an FP program that operates through a widespread network of facilities across the entire country. Today, the MOH dispenses about 70 percent of all intra-uterine devices (IUDs) and about 30 percent of all oral contraceptives (OCs) and condoms in the country. MOH’s FP service provision has traditionally been based on free and universal access. The only exception has been that some of the facilities have in recent years started to collect donations from better-off IUD clients as a result of spontaneous trend. In 1995, the Government of Turkey (GOT) and USAID signed an agreement whereby USAID’s assistance for the FP program would be phased out in five years. This meant that Turkey would have to develop a self-sustaining financing policy to bridge the resource gap created by the departure of USAID’s assistance. The MOH has since been continuing its efforts to develop and implement a new policy. According to the phaseout plan, USAID would donate 20 percentage points less condoms and OCs in each year of the phaseout period. IUD donations, however, would fully continue until the fourth year, when they would be lowered to 50 percent of the forecasted consumption of that year. In 2000, total responsibility would pass onto the GOT. However, there was a diversion from the original phaseout in the implementation stage. Although this has caused confusion, the MOH was quick to respond to the plan by initiating its first-ever contraceptive commodity procurement in 1996.
    English
    TURclidon.PDF
  • Twenty parliamentarians from Benin, Burkina Faso, Chad, Guinea, Mali, and Senegal and 15 of their close allies in the public and nongovernmental sector convened in Conakry, Guinea, June 2–6, 2003, and adopted legislative agendas and strategies to improve family planning and reproductive health (FP/RH) programs in their respective countries.
    English
    Conakry_Summary.pdf
  • In the summer of 2003, USAID's Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean launched regional initiative to determine how contraceptive security in the LAC region could be more effectively addressed and strengthened in light of the phase-out of contraceptive donations. The initiative, which is being implemented by the POLICY and DELIVER Projects, commenced in July 2003 with a Regional Meeting in Managua, Nicaragua. Seventy representatives from governments, nongovernmental organizations, UNFPA, and USAID from nine Latin American countries came together to discuss and share their country's experiences with donor phase-out and efforts to achieve contraceptive security. The meeting was followed by two-week country assessments in Bolivia, Honduras, Nicaragua, Paraguay, and Peru, which were conducted between September 2003 and May 2004. Each assessment resulted in a full assessment report and an accompanying summary of country-level findings. Findings in each country were also presented to stakeholders at the end of each assessment. A regional report describes the findings at the regional level and makes recommendations for regional contraceptive security initiatives.
    English
    ACF400.pdf
  • In the summer of 2003, USAID's Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean launched regional initiative to determine how contraceptive security in the LAC region could be more effectively addressed and strengthened in light of the phase-out of contraceptive donations. The initiative, which is being implemented by the POLICY and DELIVER Projects, commenced in July 2003 with a Regional Meeting in Managua, Nicaragua. Seventy representatives from governments, nongovernmental organizations, UNFPA, and USAID from nine Latin American countries came together to discuss and share their country's experiences with donor phase-out and efforts to achieve contraceptive security. The meeting was followed by two-week country assessments in Bolivia, Honduras, Nicaragua, Paraguay, and Peru, which were conducted between September 2003 and May 2004. Each assessment resulted in a full assessment report and an accompanying summary of country-level findings. Findings in each country were also presented to stakeholders at the end of each assessment. A regional report describes the findings at the regional level and makes recommendations for regional contraceptive security initiatives.
    English
    Honduras_CS_Eng.pdf
  • In the summer of 2003, USAID's Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean launched regional initiative to determine how contraceptive security in the LAC region could be more effectively addressed and strengthened in light of the phase-out of contraceptive donations. The initiative, which is being implemented by the POLICY and DELIVER Projects, commenced in July 2003 with a Regional Meeting in Managua, Nicaragua. Seventy representatives from governments, nongovernmental organizations, UNFPA, and USAID from nine Latin American countries came together to discuss and share their country's experiences with donor phase-out and efforts to achieve contraceptive security. The meeting was followed by two-week country assessments in Bolivia, Honduras, Nicaragua, Paraguay, and Peru, which were conducted between September 2003 and May 2004. Each assessment resulted in a full assessment report and an accompanying summary of country-level findings. Findings in each country were also presented to stakeholders at the end of each assessment. A regional report describes the findings at the regional level and makes recommendations for regional contraceptive security initiatives.
    English
    Nicaragua_CS_Eng.pdf
  • In the summer of 2003, USAID's Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean launched regional initiative to determine how contraceptive security in the LAC region could be more effectively addressed and strengthened in light of the phase-out of contraceptive donations. The initiative, which is being implemented by the POLICY and DELIVER Projects, commenced in July 2003 with a Regional Meeting in Managua, Nicaragua. Seventy representatives from governments, nongovernmental organizations, UNFPA, and USAID from nine Latin American countries came together to discuss and share their country's experiences with donor phase-out and efforts to achieve contraceptive security. The meeting was followed by two-week country assessments in Bolivia, Honduras, Nicaragua, Paraguay, and Peru, which were conducted between September 2003 and May 2004. Each assessment resulted in a full assessment report and an accompanying summary of country-level findings. Findings in each country were also presented to stakeholders at the end of each assessment. A regional report describes the findings at the regional level and makes recommendations for regional contraceptive security initiatives.
    English
    Paraguay_CS_Eng.pdf
  • In the summer of 2003, USAID's Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean launched regional initiative to determine how contraceptive security in the LAC region could be more effectively addressed and strengthened in light of the phase-out of contraceptive donations. The initiative, which is being implemented by the POLICY and DELIVER Projects, commenced in July 2003 with a Regional Meeting in Managua, Nicaragua. Seventy representatives from governments, nongovernmental organizations, UNFPA, and USAID from nine Latin American countries came together to discuss and share their country's experiences with donor phase-out and efforts to achieve contraceptive security. The meeting was followed by two-week country assessments in Bolivia, Honduras, Nicaragua, Paraguay, and Peru, which were conducted between September 2003 and May 2004. Each assessment resulted in a full assessment report and an accompanying summary of country-level findings. Findings in each country were also presented to stakeholders at the end of each assessment. A regional report describes the findings at the regional level and makes recommendations for regional contraceptive security initiatives.
    English
    Peru_CS_Eng.pdf
  • The overall objective of the study is to develop a financial sustainability strategy for contraceptive self-reliance (CSR) in the Philippines using a market segmentation approach. The development of such a strategy is in keeping with the statement of the Department of Health (DOH) in its 2001 Family Planning (FP) Policy that PhilHealth shall be a key partner in the mobilization of investments in the FP program, and that the DOH will adopt the recommendations of the technical working group on the Contraceptive Independence Initiative (CII). In particular, the CII will segment the population and will ensure the availability of commodities for all segments through direct subsidy, health insurance, socialized pricing, and/or commercial procurement.
    English
    PHIL_CSR.pdf
  • The overall objective of the study is to develop a financial sustainability strategy for contraceptive self-reliance (CSR) in the Philippines using a market segmentation approach. The development of such a strategy is in keeping with the statement of the Department of Health (DOH) in its 2001 Family Planning (FP) Policy that PhilHealth shall be a key partner in the mobilization of investments in the FP program, and that the DOH will adopt the recommendations of the technical working group on the Contraceptive Independence Initiative (CII). In particular, the CII will segment the population and will ensure the availability of commodities for all segments through direct subsidy, health insurance, socialized pricing, and/or commercial procurement.
    English
    PHIL_CSR_ES.pdf
  • The Allocate Model was applied in Senegal from November 2005 to April 2006 to assist the government with developing their new national health strategic plan. As illustrated by the model’s application and findings described in this report, Senegal would benefit from an increased effort in meeting unmet need for contraception and an expanded and higher quality postabortion care (PAC) program. This would result in an improved allocation of resources from a reduction in the number of women requiring PAC services and, most importantly, a decrease in maternal mortality. This report discuss the status of maternal health in Senegal, the use of relevant model applications to help inform the development of strategic plans, the central findings from these applications, and recommendations and next steps regarding priority areas for follow-up activities and resource allocation.
    English
    Senegal Allocate Report Final 8 9 06.pdf
  • This report examines the present situation of both the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Cambodia and the progress of its FP program. It examines the trends in funding, staff resources, impact of the epidemic on personnel, and the activities of the government, private health sector and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in both sectors. Finally, the report will examine the efforts being made to integrate HIV/AIDS and FP services so that they jointly address these issues that are having such a profound effect on Cambodia’s development.
    English
    CamFP-HIV_analysis.pdf
  • This study is an investigation into the status and trends of family planning (FP) and reproductive health (RH) programs within the context of Ethiopia’s heightening HIV/AIDS epidemic. By helping individuals and couples control the number and timing of pregnancies, family planning provides far-reaching benefits (Dayaratna et al., 2000). In addition, by reducing unintended and high-risk pregnancies, family planning can lower the instances of maternal and child injury, illness, and death associated with childbirth and unsafe abortions (Shane, 1997). Ethiopia has not been able to expand FP services to satisfy the increasing unmet need in the country, and its maternal mortality ratio (MMR) ranks as one of the world’s highest. At the same time, Ethiopia is among the countries that have been hardest hit by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The findings of this study are expected to inform policy and program managers about the various dimensions of HIV/AIDS and family planning in Ethiopia.
    English
    EthiopiaFP-HIV.doc
  • This study was designed to document the extent to which Kenya has managed both its family planning/reproductive health (FP/RH) and HIV/AIDS programs in the context of the high HIV prevalence (14%) the country is experiencing. In order to gain further insights on the dynamics of the FP program (FPP) in the country, interviews were conducted with 16 key informants from relevant government ministries/departments, NGOs, collaborating agencies, and donors. Questions touched on specific issues of FP/RH and HIV/AIDS regarding funding levels, staffing/personnel issues, integration and role of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and the private sector in FP/RH and HIV/AIDS programs. The background information for the study was obtained from several policy documents and other related official documents such as strategic plans, relevant survey results/reports, development plans, and statistical abstracts.
    English
    Ken_FPHIV.pdf
  • This study forms part of an investigation by the POLICY Project on how countries have been managing family planning in the face of high HIV/AIDS prevalence. This report describes recent trends in family planning/reproductive health (FP/RH) and HIV/AIDS service delivery in Zambia. The study was conducted in two parts. First, the desk review of documents on FP/RH and HIV/AIDS was carried out. The second part involved in-depth interviews with selected stakeholders in FP/RH and HIV/AIDS service delivery. Respondents included representatives from the Ministry of Health/Central Board of Health (MOH/CBOH), National AIDS Council (NAC), donor agencies, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and cooperating partners as well as public and private service providers. Questions were asked about the FP/RH and HIV/AIDS programs with regard to the status of the programs, funding levels, staffing and personal issues, the role of NGOs and the private sector, and health sector reform.
    English
    Zam_FPHIV.pdf
  • De Frente a la VIDA is a photojournal that features the stories of 10 people living with HIV/AIDS in Mexico. It was developed as part of POLICY's "Mo Kexteya" Project on stigma and discrimination in Mexico. Media reporting and images can profoundly influence public perceptions of HIV/AIDS. This photojournal aims to help change stereotypical portrayals of PLHAs by presenting positive images of PLHAs and their everyday experiences in a range of settings. The photojournal is being used in advocacy work and in journalist training sessions to help improve reporting on HIV/AIDS and people affected by the disease.
    Spanish
    MoKexteya.cfm
  • Based on proceedings of an October 2003 workshop conducted in Guatemala with support from POLICY Project and the International HIV/AIDS Alliance, this Spanish manual is an important contribution to the literature on best practices, lessons learned, and case studies in HIV/AIDS/STI prevention for MSM in the region. Presented in terms of processes, impact/results, and monitoring and evaluation, the document is also a useful tool for designing and improving HIV/AIDS/STI prevention programs. With attention to regional cooperation, communication, capacity building, advocacy, and financing of MSM HIV/AIDS/STI prevention programs, the manual provides comprehensive and practical guidelines for program planners as well as policymakers.
    Spanish
    LAC_MSM_sp.pdf
  • English
    JamRHinteg.pdf
  • In the summer of 2003, USAID's Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean launched regional initiative to determine how contraceptive security in the LAC region could be more effectively addressed and strengthened in light of the phase-out of contraceptive donations. The initiative, which is being implemented by the POLICY and DELIVER Projects, commenced in July 2003 with a Regional Meeting in Managua, Nicaragua. Seventy representatives from governments, nongovernmental organizations, UNFPA, and USAID from nine Latin American countries came together to discuss and share their country's experiences with donor phase-out and efforts to achieve contraceptive security. The meeting was followed by two-week country assessments in Bolivia, Honduras, Nicaragua, Paraguay, and Peru, which were conducted between September 2003 and May 2004. Each assessment resulted in a full assessment report and an accompanying summary of country-level findings. Findings in each country were also presented to stakeholders at the end of each assessment. A regional report describes the findings at the regional level and makes recommendations for regional contraceptive security initiatives.
    Spanish
    Bolivia_CS_Sp.pdf
  • In the summer of 2003, USAID's Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean launched regional initiative to determine how contraceptive security in the LAC region could be more effectively addressed and strengthened in light of the phase-out of contraceptive donations. The initiative, which is being implemented by the POLICY and DELIVER Projects, commenced in July 2003 with a Regional Meeting in Managua, Nicaragua. Seventy representatives from governments, nongovernmental organizations, UNFPA, and USAID from nine Latin American countries came together to discuss and share their country's experiences with donor phase-out and efforts to achieve contraceptive security. The meeting was followed by two-week country assessments in Bolivia, Honduras, Nicaragua, Paraguay, and Peru, which were conducted between September 2003 and May 2004. Each assessment resulted in a full assessment report and an accompanying summary of country-level findings. Findings in each country were also presented to stakeholders at the end of each assessment. A regional report describes the findings at the regional level and makes recommendations for regional contraceptive security initiatives.
    Spanish
    Honduras_CS_Sp.pdf
  • In the summer of 2003, USAID's Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean launched regional initiative to determine how contraceptive security in the LAC region could be more effectively addressed and strengthened in light of the phase-out of contraceptive donations. The initiative, which is being implemented by the POLICY and DELIVER Projects, commenced in July 2003 with a Regional Meeting in Managua, Nicaragua. Seventy representatives from governments, nongovernmental organizations, UNFPA, and USAID from nine Latin American countries came together to discuss and share their country's experiences with donor phase-out and efforts to achieve contraceptive security. The meeting was followed by two-week country assessments in Bolivia, Honduras, Nicaragua, Paraguay, and Peru, which were conducted between September 2003 and May 2004. Each assessment resulted in a full assessment report and an accompanying summary of country-level findings. Findings in each country were also presented to stakeholders at the end of each assessment. A regional report describes the findings at the regional level and makes recommendations for regional contraceptive security initiatives.
    Spanish
    Nicaragua_CS_SP.pdf
  • In the summer of 2003, USAID's Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean launched regional initiative to determine how contraceptive security in the LAC region could be more effectively addressed and strengthened in light of the phase-out of contraceptive donations. The initiative, which is being implemented by the POLICY and DELIVER Projects, commenced in July 2003 with a Regional Meeting in Managua, Nicaragua. Seventy representatives from governments, nongovernmental organizations, UNFPA, and USAID from nine Latin American countries came together to discuss and share their country's experiences with donor phase-out and efforts to achieve contraceptive security. The meeting was followed by two-week country assessments in Bolivia, Honduras, Nicaragua, Paraguay, and Peru, which were conducted between September 2003 and May 2004. Each assessment resulted in a full assessment report and an accompanying summary of country-level findings. Findings in each country were also presented to stakeholders at the end of each assessment. A regional report describes the findings at the regional level and makes recommendations for regional contraceptive security initiatives.
    Spanish
    ACF3D1.pdf
  • In the summer of 2003, USAID's Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean launched regional initiative to determine how contraceptive security in the LAC region could be more effectively addressed and strengthened in light of the phase-out of contraceptive donations. The initiative, which is being implemented by the POLICY and DELIVER Projects, commenced in July 2003 with a Regional Meeting in Managua, Nicaragua. Seventy representatives from governments, nongovernmental organizations, UNFPA, and USAID from nine Latin American countries came together to discuss and share their country's experiences with donor phase-out and efforts to achieve contraceptive security. The meeting was followed by two-week country assessments in Bolivia, Honduras, Nicaragua, Paraguay, and Peru, which were conducted between September 2003 and May 2004. Each assessment resulted in a full assessment report and an accompanying summary of country-level findings. Findings in each country were also presented to stakeholders at the end of each assessment. A regional report describes the findings at the regional level and makes recommendations for regional contraceptive security initiatives.
    Spanish
    Peru_CS_SP.pdf
  • A report from a workshop held by the East-Central Division of the Seventh Day Adventist Church, bringing together people from five continents to put forth a united front in the battle against the spread of HIV/AIDS. The workshop sensitized church leaders to the issues of HIV/AIDS, identified priority actions and put forth policy reccomendations to the church Executive Committee.
    English
    ken_ecd_sdaps.pdf
  • English
    SEImpact_Africa.PDF
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    angola.pdf
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    benin.pdf
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    botswana.pdf
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    burkina.pdf
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    congodrc.pdf
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    cotedivo.pdf
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    ethiopia.pdf
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    ghana.pdf
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    kenya.pdf
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    madagasc.pdf
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    malawi.pdf
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    mali.pdf
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    mozambiq.pdf
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    namibia.pdf
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    nigeria.pdf
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    rwanda.pdf
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    senegal.pdf
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    southafr.pdf
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    swazilan.pdf
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    tanzania.pdf
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    uganda.pdf
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    zambia.pdf
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    zimbabwe.pdf
  • This report reviews the progress made to date under Egypt’s family planning (FP) program and estimates the benefits that have already been realized. It documents the effects of the FP program on Egypt’s demographic transition through a review of the country’s major demographic indicators. To estimate the benefits realized, a scenario of a less successful FP program was created and compared with the cumulative public sector savings achieved as a result of Egypt’s actual FP program for the period of 1980–2005. The health benefits for children and mothers were also analyzed.
    English
    Egypt 25 yr retro Final.pdf
  • The POLICY Project facilitated a technical workshop, titled Epidemiologic Projections, Demographic Impact & Resource Allocation in Namibia, from February 27–March 2, 2006. Fifteen participants attended, including representatives from the public sector (the Ministry of Health and Social Services, the Ministry of Education, and the Central Bureau of Statistics); nongovernmental organizations (the Social Marketing Association of Namibia); academia (the University of Namibia); and development partners (the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria). The multisectoral group included public sector planners and other technical experts in demography, epidemiology, and economics. A large policy forum was conducted immediately following the workshop (March 3, 2006) and brought together 47 participants from a wide range of Namibian and international institutions. The workshop findings were presented and discussed, including how they could be used as an advocacy tool for resource generation and reallocation. The overall goal of the workshop was to present tools and strategies to assist the decisionmaking process for national-level resource allocation for HIV/AIDS. The main tool discussed was the Goals Model, an interactive computer-based tool that links budget allocation decisions to their impact on HIV/AIDS program goals. By stressing an evidence-based, multisectoral participatory process, POLICY hoped to build capacity in resource allocation advocacy and modeling skills, deepen local understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of the current HIV surveillance system in Namibia, and project the future course of the epidemic.
    English
    Namibia Windhoek final report Edited FINAL 5 22 06.pdf
  • English
    GhanaNatEst2000.pdf
  • Sentinel surveillance systems for HIV are designed to provide information on trends to policy makers and program planners. The data are useful for understanding the magnitude of the HIV/AIDS problem in certain geographic areas and among special populations and for monitoring the impact of interventions. These data also can be used to prepare estimates of national HIV prevalence suitable for advocacy purposes and district planning. This paper describes the approach used in Malawi to develop an estimate of adult HIV prevalence. The methodology and assumptions reported here were developed during a workshop organized by the National AIDS Control Programme (NACP) in Lilongwe in September 1999 and updated for 2001 during a workshop in Lilongwe in May 2001. Participants represented the NACP, National Statistical Office, MACRO, College of Medicine, Ministry of Health and Population, University of Malawi, Department of Human Resources Management and Development, CDC and the POLICY Project.
    English
    MalSS.pdf
  • A technical working group organized by the National AIDS Commission has used the latest sentinel surveillance results for 2003 to estimate national HIV prevalence in Malawi. This report describes the methodology, assumptions and results of that work.
    English
    MALNatEst2003.doc
  • The HIV/AIDS epidemic is having a wide impact on Nigeria. One of the more alarming is the emerging cohort of AIDS orphans and other vulnerable children (OVCs)—children who have lost either or both of their parents to AIDS. Experiences from other countries, such as Ethiopia, Uganda, and South Africa, where the epidemic is more advanced, tell us that AIDS orphans face serious threats to their well-being, and these threats can have far-reaching and long-term effects on society, public health, and the economy. Nigeria, like many sub-Saharan African countries, has a young population. Current estimates indicate that about 44 percent of the country’s population is under age 15. Unfortunately, a sizable proportion of these children have lost either one or both their parents. This report provides an estimate of orphans (under age 15) that have lost their parents to AIDS-related and non-AIDS-related causes for the 36 states of Nigeria and the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) between 2000 and 2015. The paper also briefly describes the methodology and data used to develop the estimates.
    English
    Nig_Orp_Proj.pdf
  • English
    senfrenc.pdf
  • The objective of POLICY’s HIV/AIDS Program in Mexico is “to support the government’s effort to enhance the quality and sustainability of HIV/AIDS/STI services in targeted states.” The focus of the project in the three initial states of Yucatán, Guerrero and Mexico has been to promote coalition building and a participatory strategic planning process among diverse stakeholders. POLICY has worked in Mexico at the bequest of and in close collaboration with CENSIDA, the national agency responsible for oversight of HIV/AIDS services and prevention programs in Mexico. The principal purposes of the evaluation were to understand what worked well, where POLICY’s tools have been most successful, and what could be learned from mistakes. The evaluation was also an opportunity to elicit some lessons learned from the Multisectoral Citizens’ Groups (MCGs) in the first three states where the project has been active and to codify some common principles from POLICY’s process from the varied experiences in different states. Another area of inquiry focused on identifying other complementary processes that POLICY and CENSIDA could employ to strengthen the effectiveness of governmental and nongovernmental groups in transforming the policy process in targeted states. There was general agreement among all of the project’s stakeholders that they had made significant contributions to improvements in HIV/AIDS prevention activities and in the quality of services in Mexico by supporting local initiatives. Similarly, there was strong praise for the quality and dedication of the POLICY staff. In particular, the clients in the three states interviewed during the evaluation expressed an overwhelmingly positive experience with the project. The project has supported the formation of active MCGs in three states (Guerrero, Mexico, and Yucatán). Project staff also tried to organize a similar group in the Federal District (D.F.) but found that it was difficult to build the same level of commitment and coordination. Instead of supporting the formation of a MCG in the D.F., POLICY helped to develop a local council for HIV/AIDS prevention (CODFSIDA). Toward the end of 2001 POLICY had expanded its work to Campeche, Chiapas, Oaxaca, Quintana Roo, and Veracruz. The MCG in Yucatán will work with the groups in Campeche and Quintana Roo. This represents a new phase in the project whereby older groups provide technical assistance for the formation of new groups. Another innovation is that local groups in the newly participating states are conducted by the members of the multisectoral groups rather than by outside consultants.
    English
    Mexi_eval.pdf
  • This study was prepared at the request of the POLICY Project to analyze the existing and potential procurement mechanisms in the Ministry of Health (MOH), Royal Medical Services (RMS), UN Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA), Jordan University Hospital (JUH), and Jordan Association for Family Planning and Protection (JAFPP), which are the main providers of contraceptives obtained through the USAID grant to the MOH in Jordan.
    English
    Jor_procurement.pdf
  • This paper presents a detailed market segmentation analysis of the family planning sector in Jordan. Section 2 provides an overview of the provider market. Section 3 analyzes the consumer market in terms of consumer characteristics, needs, method use, and sources of contraceptives. Section 4 studies profiles of the public-, NGO-, and private-sector clients. Section 5 presents a comparative analysis of the 1997 and 2002 markets. Section 6 assesses the current targeting behavior in the public sector. Section 7 segments the current market to establish a better match between current/potential users and the appropriate source of FP methods and services. Section 8 projects the potential demand across SLI quintiles and the potential market for the public, NGO, and commercial sectors; while Section 9 presents policy options for achieving contraceptive security based on market segmentation results.
    English
    JOR_MS.pdf
  • English
    fpeb.pdf
  • Over the past decade, Cambodia has made good progress in re-establishing a nationwide health system that had been devastated by decades of civil conflict. The efforts of the Ministry of Health and nongovernmental organizations to expand family planning services have had an impact on individual lives and most health indicators. Between 1995 and 2000, the contraceptive prevalence rate for married couples practicing modern family planning methods increased from 7 to 18.5 percent. The risk that women will die due to pregnancy-related causes, while still quite high, has also been greatly reduced due to lower fertility and improved access to service provision. Despite these achievements, Cambodia faces great challenges. This booklet reviews Cambodia's current reproductive health situation and focuses on the challenges ahead for family planning and safe motherhood programs. (Hard copy available in English and Khmer)
    English
    CAM_SavingLives.pdf
  • The volume presents information on the status of RCH financing in Rajasthan. It rests on the multifaceted research endeavor that encompassed: 1) a comprehensive literature review of health financing studies in India; 2) a detailed analysis of cost recovery through Medical Relief Societies; 3) an analysis of public sector health expenditure based on a review of government budget and expenditure reports at both the state and district levels; 4) an RCH expenditure and utilization survey of 1,100 households in the district of Udaipur, Rajasthan; and 5) an inventory of public and private sector health facilities for seven districts in Rajasthan; and provider interviews on time allocation at health facilities in Udaipur, Rajasthan.
    English
    IND_RAJ_FIN.pdf
  • English
    finalbol.pdf
  • Although user fees are increasingly being used in government health programs to alleviate the pressure on constrained budgets as demand for services increases, results in developing countries thus far have been mixed and concerns that fees reduce access to services among the poor have led to the promotion of fee exemption mechanisms. These exemptions, however, may not be an effective response because (1) informal fees and other costs associated with seeking and receiving services are not alleviated by most exemption mechanisms, and (2) exemption mechanisms are often poorly implemented. The low proportion of formal fees to total costs to the consumer and the unpredictable nature of informal fees may actually work against formal fee exemption mechanisms. Thus, it is important to assess whether these mechanisms alone hold promise for protecting access among the poor, or whether they need to be supplemented with other strategies. The objectives of this study were to: (1) survey actual costs to consumers for reproductive health (RH) care services including antenatal care (ANC), delivery care, family planning (FP), postabortion care (PAC), child healthcare, and reproductive tract infection (RTI) treatment; (2) review fee and waiver mechanisms; (3) assess the degree to which these mechanisms function as intended; (4) assess the degree to which residual costs to consumers (after accounting for fee exemptions) may constitute a barrier to these services; and (5) review current policies and practices on setting charges and collecting, retaining, and using fee revenue.
    English
    India Maternal Health User Fee Paper.Country Report.FINAL.doc
  • This case study focuses on Cambodia, where a group of advocates recognized that involving men was an important aspect of improving the country's reproductive health status. Members of MEDiCAM, a large network of health nongovernmental organizations in Cambodia, formed the Reproductive Health Promotion Working Group (RHPWG), with technical assistance from the POLICY Project. Working as a bridge between implementers and policymakers, the RHPWG identified male involvement in reproductive health as its top advocacy priority. Through concerted advocacy efforts, the group succeeded in garnering policymaker support and worked with relevant ministries and other stakeholders to establish standard guidelines for male involvement programs. The draft guidelines were structured to align with the major components of the country's forthcoming Strategic Plan for Reproductive Health in Cambodia (2006-2010), which now refers explicitly to male involvement in several places. Cambodia's experience is a good model for other countries seeking to strengthen male involvement initiatives through advocacy, policy development, and implementation.
    English
    Cambodia MI casestudy final 1 24 06.doc
  • Booklet describing the steps involved in HIV/AIDS strategic planning for the Church.
    English
    ANGLICAN_AIDS_BOOK.pdf
  • The right to own and inherit property is a crosscutting right that traverses the realm of civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights. This right is central to the true empowerment of everyone in society (men, women, boys and girls) and is a key developmental right. It is the common right to all societies and cultures. It is central to securing the dignity of all members of the society. Emerging legal and social trends, as they relate to the ownership and inheritance of property, indicate a practice that has largely worked out to the detriment of women in virtually all communities and social classes in Kenya. They include the laws relating to property, to marriage and dissolution of marriage, land registration systems, and the social and cultural attitudes that determine the actual enjoyment of these rights. Compounding the problem is the HIV/AIDS pandemic, which has caused massive destitution, displacements, blame-passing and mistrust in nearly all communities in Kenya. The high stigma associated with it has increased the vulnerability of women in this regard. In no other community in Kenya is the twin problem of societal and cultural practices - which discriminate against women and thereby translate into widespread of HIV/AIDS - more stark than within Luo Nyanza. It is against the backdrop of the realisation of this continuing trend of violation of womens (especially, but by no means limited to widows) right to property ownership and inheritance rights and the urgency of the problem in the face of HIV/AIDS pandemic that the POLICY Project  Kenya ( funded by the Futures Group) and Kenya National Commission on Human Rights (KNCHR) (funded by the Governance Justice Law and Order Sector reform program) came together inspired by the same need to work on enhancing the enjoyment of this right by women in Kenya.
    English
    KEN_InheritanceRights.pdf
  • English
    Jor_Fpresults.pdf
  • This booklet examines the impact of rapid population growth on development and illustrates how a successful population management program would provide significant economic and social benefits to Ghana, thereby improving the quality of life for all Ghanaians. The booklet is based on analysis conducted using the Resource for Awareness of Population Impacts on Development (RAPID) model.
    English
    RAPID_booklet_final.pdf
  • This report describes networking among NGOs in five districts of Ghana's Eastern Region.
    English
    Ghana_NGO_Networking__rev2_.pdf
  • Glossary of definitions relating to gender and health.
    Spanish
    GuateGlos.pdf
  • Summary of USAID/China Program Launch in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China August 23 –25, 2004
    English
    China_Guangxi-Launch.pdf
  • Spanish
    MEX_GenHIV_Agenda.pdf
  • In less than a quarter of a century, the HIV/AIDS outbreak has become the most outstanding challenge worldwide. Over 30 million lives have been lost due to this devastating disease and about 40 million people are estimated to be living with HIV. HIV/AIDS causes unacceptable human suffering to the infected and affected individuals, their families, communities, and nations. Nepal has been affected by this complex epidemic, with an estimated 0.5 percent of the population being HIV positive (National Estimates of Adult HIV Infections–Nepal, 2003, NCASC, March 2004). Even a conservative estimate puts the number of people living with HIV or AIDS (PLWHA) in Nepal at over 61,000. Although HIV/AIDS prevalence in the Nepal Police Service is not known, it is reasonable to estimate that it is comparable with the national average of 0.5 percent. The prevalence may be even greater due to the nature of police work, which places them in vulnerable situations. An effective HIV/AIDS response requires adequately addressing the social and structural epidemics of poverty, conflict, war, gender inequality, stigma and discrimination, and human rights violations, which are fertile grounds for the spread of HIV/AIDS. These issues highlight the significant need for an educational program for the Nepal Police. This curriculum seeks to contribute to this purpose.
    English
    NEP_PoliceCurriculum.pdf
  • The National AIDS Control Council has realized the need to mainstream gender issues in programmes/projects since mainstreaming gender issues in the planning, implementation and evaluation of programmes strengthens the effectiveness of the response to HIV and AIDS. The overall goal of this toolkit is to sensitise policy and senior level decision makers on key HIV, AIDS, and Gender issues. It offers guidelines to use when planning and formulating gender responsive policies and programmes relating to HIV and AIDS.
    English
    KEN_GenderToolkit.pdf
  • A research report assessing the current situation for people living with HIV/AIDS in Nepal. The report addresses discrimination and stigma through legal reform.
    English
    NEP_LegAudit.pdf
  • English
    Ethadhiv.pdf
  • This briefing book is intended to provide information about the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Ghana. This material is also available as a slide show or interactive computer presentation. The information is provided in four sections: Background: What we know about HIV/AIDS in Ghana today Projections: The number of people who might develop AIDS in the future Impacts: The social and economic impacts of AIDS Interventions: What needs to be done to prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS Policy: Policy issues and the National Strategic Framework, and institutional structure that have been put into place to combat the epidemic
    English
    GHA_AIM3rdEd.pdf
  • This report is designed as an advocacy tool to assist policymakers and other stakeholders in stimulating dialogue about sustainable, contextually appropriate responses to HIV/AIDS in Ghana. The report seeks to provide an overview of the current HIV/AIDS situation in Ghana; project the future direction of the epidemic using the best available data; highlight some of the key social and economic impacts of the pandemic; and discuss strategies that will be needed to reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS, improve care and support, and mitigate associated impacts.
    English
    HIVAIDS_IN_GHANA_CURRENT SITUATION.pdf
  • This report presents the latest estimates of the extent of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Malawi and discusses some of the implications. The report is based on the results of an AIDS Impact Model application.
    English
    MAL_AIDS.pdf
  • Four-page bulletin summarizing AIM results in nine Francophone African countries. (Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Cote D'Ivoire, Guinea, Mali, Niger, Senegal, and Togo.
    English
    HIV9.pdf
  • The HIV/AIDS epidemic has become a serious health and development problem in many countries around the world. The Joint United Nations Programme on AIDS (UNAIDS) estimates the number of HIV infections worldwide at about 36.1 million by the end of 2000. About 25.3 million infected people—70 percent of the total—were in sub-Saharan Africa. In 2000 alone, 5.3 million people became newly infected with HIV. Another 21.8 million persons have already died from the disease since the beginning of the epidemic, mostly in Africa. In 2000, about 600,000 children became newly infected with HIV, nearly all of whom were infants born to HIV-infected mothers. Nine of 10 newly infected infants were in sub-Saharan Africa. The virus that causes AIDS has already infected and is infecting many Africans. About 20 percent of the entire adult population aged 15–49 is currently infected in nine southern African countries—Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. This is a staggering level, and most of these people do not even know they are infected. From the beginning of the epidemic through 2000, about 4.4 million persons may have developed AIDS in southern Africa, although most of these have not been officially recorded. No cure is available for AIDS, and the disease threatens the social and economic well being of the countries.
    English
    SoAf10-01.pdf
  • English
    Talkpts.pdf
  • This briefing book is intended to provide information about the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Zimbabwe. This material is also available as a slide or interactive computer presentation. The information provided includes: what we know about HIV/AIDS in Zimbabwe today, the number of people who might develop AIDS in the future, the social and economic impacts of AIDS, and what needs to be done to prevent the spread of AIDS.
    English
    Zimaim.pdf
  • Parent-Youth Relationships: Implications for Youth Reproductive Health Policies and Programs
    English
    Haiti_Brief_1.pdf
  • Integrating Voluntary Counseling and Testing into a Reproductive Health Program for Young People
    English
    Haiti_Brief_2.pdf
  • English
    egypt-co.pdf
  • The IFPS Project sought to design, test, and expand innovative approaches for improving quality of and access to family planning and reproductive and child health services, particularly for women, rural populations, and other underserved groups. This document reviews lessons learned from this project to help policymakers and program planners improve RCH services in India or other countries.
    English
    IFPS Monograph.pdf
  • AIDS Impacts in eight Francophone African countries.
    French
    FHAimpact.pdf
  • AIDS Impact Model Update Bulletin (Vol. 1 No. 2) 2001
    French
    Imp2.pdf
  • This report assesses how the Greater Involvement of People Living with HIV/AIDS (GIPA) Principle is being implemented in the ANE region. Five USAID Missions and 12 implementing agencies (IAs) in the region participated in the assessment, which was undertaken in May and June 2003 in Cambodia, India, Nepal, Philippines, and Viet Nam. The purpose of the assessment was to ascertain how Missions, IAs, and NGOs are incorporating GIPA principles into their organizations and into the programmatic work they support and implement. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 23 respondents from Missions, IAs, and NGOs.
    English
    ANE_GIPA.pdf
  • In the summer of 2003, USAID's Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean launched regional initiative to determine how contraceptive security in the LAC region could be more effectively addressed and strengthened in light of the phase-out of contraceptive donations. The initiative, which is being implemented by the POLICY and DELIVER Projects, commenced in July 2003 with a Regional Meeting in Managua, Nicaragua. Seventy representatives from governments, nongovernmental organizations, UNFPA, and USAID from nine Latin American countries came together to discuss and share their country's experiences with donor phase-out and efforts to achieve contraceptive security. The meeting was followed by two-week country assessments in Bolivia, Honduras, Nicaragua, Paraguay, and Peru, which were conducted between September 2003 and May 2004. Each assessment resulted in a full assessment report and an accompanying summary of country-level findings. Findings in each country were also presented to stakeholders at the end of each assessment. A regional report describes the findings at the regional level and makes recommendations for regional contraceptive security initiatives.
    Spanish
    Regional_CS_Sp.pdf
  • The document describes the goal and approach of the IFPS project in improving reproductive health services.
    English
    INDinnov.pdf
  • In the past few years, South African hospitals have become overcrowded and in many facilities AIDS patients outnumber patients with other illnesses. Home-based care is considered as an alternative to traditional institutionalised care, and focuses on palliative care within the home. The increasing number of patients hospitalised for an extended period of time has stretched the resources of the health care system. Discharging patients into the care of a home care programme allows for a shorter stay at the hospital, making more beds available for other patients and reducing costs to the institution. Releasing patients into the care of competent agencies that deliver quality home-based care services can allow hospital staff to have peace of mind and enhance the morale of health care providers in the face of an overwhelming situation. In 1999 POLICY Project supported seven hospices to incorporate the Integrated Community-based Home Care (ICHC) model into their operational activities. This report documents the critical elements of the ICHC model and reflect on the experiences of those working in the field. Objectives of the research were to: 1) identify and discuss key similarities and differences between the hospice ICHC model and other home-based care models used in South Africa; 2) identify and critically review the core elements related to the ICHC model as implemented by Hospice Association of South Africa; and, 3) highlight key aspects of best practice related to the hospice ICHC model.
    English
    SA_Hospice.pdf
  • The purpose of this paper is to outline the international and national legal instruments that apply to HIV/AIDS in Vietnam and to examine those instruments, as well as government policies, from a human rights perspective.
    English
    VIE_HumanRights_HIV.pdf
  • This paper is designed to serve as a key background document for the Sustainability Strategy Conference, May 3-4, 2001. It summarized the findings of 12 individual situation analysis papers developed under four different subject areas: financial sustainability, institutional capacity, enabling environment and sustainability of demand.
    English
    EGY_SFP.pdf
  • A quarterly newsletter on population issues in Kenya, produced by the National Council for Population and Development (NCPD) and the POLICY Project. Theme: Kenya Demographic and Health Survey 2003
    English
    KEN_KenPop_1.1.pdf
  • A quarterly newsletter on population issues in Kenya, produced by the National Council for Population and Development (NCPD) and the POLICY Project. Theme: Improving the Quality of our Population: ICPD+10: Lessons Learnt
    English
    KEN_Kenpop_1.2.pdf
  • This is a report of the first wrokshop held in Kenya for HIV-positive teachers in December 2004. It was organised by KENEPOTE and the POLICY Project. The goal of the workshop was to sensitise HIV-positive teachers and important education-sector stakeholders on KENPOTE goals, vision, mission, and objectives. The workshop further hoped to get HIV-positive teachers to share their workplace and life experiences and to explore ways in which they could unite to address the challenges facing them, given their great potential as Kenyan agents of change.
    English
    KEN_KENEPOTE.pdf
  • Report Of The First South African National Home/Community Based Care Conference held 18 - 21 September 2002. The conference aimed to provide strategic direction for the delivery of care and support services through HCBC programmes in South Africa, and also to focus on strengthening their impact. An overview of the specific aims, objectives and expected outputs are contained in the section “The HCBC Conference at a glance” on page 5. Debates and presentations were structured around four tracks, and focused on issues that have been identified as critical barriers to developing HCBC ser vices. The tracks of the conference were: Context for Care, Continuum of Care, Par tners for Care, and Living Positively.
    English
    Khomanani_ConfRpt.pdf
  • Executive summary of the First South African National Home/Community Based Care Conference held 18 - 21 September 2002. The conference aimed to provide strategic direction for the delivery of care and support services through HCBC programmes in South Africa, and also to focus on strengthening their impact. An overview of the specific aims, objectives and expected outputs are contained in the section “The HCBC Conference at a glance” on page 5. Debates and presentations were structured around four tracks, and focused on issues that have been identified as critical barriers to developing HCBC ser vices. The tracks of the conference were: Context for Care, Continuum of Care, Par tners for Care, and Living Positively.
    English
    Khomanani_ExecSum.pdf
  • The first behavioural survey conducted in the Nigerian Armed Forces to elicit behavioural information that would contribute to a better understanding of the dynamics and underlying factors of the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and HIV/AIDS in the military was carried out between May and August 2001. The nationally representative survey was conducted amongst nearly 1,600 military personnel randomly selected from the three service arms of the Nigerian Armed Forces. Detailed information on the knowledge and attitudes regarding STDs and HIV/AIDS and on risky behaviour patterns was elicited. Also, information on some socio-demographic factors that could have possible explanatory value or confounding effects was obtained. The survey reveals that Nigerian military personnel are very educated and dedicated, with long-term career investments in the military that imply personal and professional hardships and risks. Of concern is that Nigerian military personnel find themselves in professional and personal situations that lead to engaging in high-risk behaviours that could put them at risk of contracting STDs, including HIV. Furthermore, in view of the fact that military personnel live with and interact freely with the civilian population, they could serve as a potential core transmission group for these infections to the larger population. This is of great concern and calls for prompt interventions. Whilst military personnel are more aware of HIV/AIDS than the general population, more could be done by the Nigerian military to protect their dedicated officers and men to the extent possible from the risks to which they are exposed.
    English
    Nig_AFPAC_KAB.pdf
  • Background, projections and impacts of HIV/AIDS in Haiti.
    French
    impact.pdf
  • Summary report of the evaluation of the master trainers programme. Local government councillors and officials were trained in order to build the capacity of local governments in addressing the HIV/AIDS epidemic.
    English
    SA_LGEval.pdf
  • RAPID Booklet for Madhya Pradesh
    English
    INDmp.pdf
  • English
    Moz_Manual.pdf
  • The support of the media is considered to be essential in strengthening the response to HIV/AIDS and addressing the human development challenges posed by the epidemic. As an influential advocate of social change, the media needs to play a positive role in preventing the spread of HIV/AIDS and in reducing its impact. In fact, it is the media’s responsibility to inform, educate, and lead. But the question is, has it been able to play this role effectively? This review analyzes the role of the media and the reporting trends on HIV/AIDS issues in Nepal in order to better understand how the media reports in order to foster effective partnership with it. This report will help in assessing the general trend of coverage on HIV/AIDS issues. It is expected to help the government and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) working in the area of HIV/AIDS to devise more influential advocacy strategies. It is also expected to help in deciding on the choice of media for dissemination of information and messages on HIV/AIDS.
    English
    NEP_MediaReview_HIV.pdf
  • English
    CAM_MSM.pdf
  • In October 2002, under the slogan "South African Men Care Enough to Act", a National Men's Imbizo was held bringing some 400 men together from around the country to bring awareness to the need for men's involvement in HIV/AIDS. At this meeting, an Interim National Task Team was elected as a first organizational step towards the formation of a broad-based countrywide men's forum. Coordinating the responses of the men's sector is considered paramount to developing effective strategies in the four priority areas identified in the HIV/AIDS and STD Strategic Plan for South Africa (2000-2005): • Prevention • Treatment, care and support • Human and legal rights, and • Research, monitoring and evaluation In February 2003, following the Imbizo, a meeting was held between the Government AIDS Action Plan (national and provincial structures), the USAID-funded POLICY Project and the men’s sector national working group to plan the next steps. Based on outcomes of the Imbizo (see South African Men Care Enough to Act: Report on the National Men's Imbizo on HIV/AIDS, 2002) the decision was made to further engage the men's sector through a series of consultative workshops at the provincial level. These would follow on from provincial report-back meetings held after the Imbizo, strengthening the involvement of men in HIV/AIDS activities. The workshops would, as part of the government's broader Partnership Against AIDS programme, create a solid platform for discussion and collaboration in the men's sector. Through the establishment of provincially-coordinated men's networks, it is hoped this crucial sector will begin to play a more constructive, holistic and influential role in rising to the social and cultural challenges presented by HIV/AIDS. Provincial workshops would provide the men with an opportunity to develop coherent plans to guide their actions as individuals, as groups, and as partners with other sectors. This report documents the process and outcomes of these provincial meetings.
    English
    SA_mensprovince.pdf
  • This report focuses on the role of midwives in the prevention, detection, and treatment of HIV/AIDS and STIs and is based on a study in a rural community in Mexico. The document provides recommendations for improving the relationship between midwives and public health programs to better equip midwives to prevent, detect, and treat STIs and HIV/AIDS.
    English
    MEX_Midwives_STI.pdf
  • Brochure on maternal mortality and women's status in Haiti.
    French
    Mor.PDF
  • Final report of a study to investigate mechanisms to maximize the greater involvement of people living with HIV/AIDS (GIPA) within the HIV/AIDS policy and program development, implementation and evaluation process in Vietnam.
    English
    VIE_FinalGIPA.pdf
  • Reproductive Tract Infections (RTIs) are being increasingly recognised as a global health problem with serious impacts on individual women and men, their families and communities. RTIs, generally seen as a ‘silent’ epidemic can have severe consequences including infertility, ectopic pregnancy, chronic pelvic pain, miscarriage, neonatal blindness, increased risk of HIV infection and even death. But the consequences of RTIs extend beyond the realms of health. The morbidity associated with RTIs affect economic productivity and the quality of life of many individual men, women and ultimately of whole communities. The Health Sector of the Government of Ghana in collaboration with WHO and other Partners initiated a process in 2000 with the aim of assisting the Sector programme managers in prioritising interventions for addressing and repositioning RTIs.
    English
    GHA_RTIGuide.pdf
  • This report is a summary of the existing HIV/AIDS national policies and plans among countries in SADC. It is intended to provide a snapshot of the current status of policy formulation in the region and to suggest future steps to strengthen the policy environment for an effective response to the epidemic. Much of the information in this report is derived from national HIV/AIDS policies, strategic plans, HIV/AIDS policies for specific sectors and work plans.
    English
    SADC.pdf
  • Armed forces, police, and other uniformed services around the world face a serious risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), due to the nature and characteristics of their profession. As a civil force, the Nepal Police work closely with the population in all areas of the country and subsequently are frequently exposed to groups with increased vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. Although the risk of contracting HIV through performing the normal duties of uniformed services employees is so low as to be almost non-existent, there are other factors that can contribute to the vulnerability of uniformed services personnel. The overall objectives of the HIV/AIDS strategy for the Nepal Police are to halt the spread of the HIV/AIDS epidemic within the police force, their partners and families; to sensitize them toward the rights of vulnerable groups and their access to HIV/AIDS services, and to ensure that policing practices do not exacerbate the impact of the epidemic in Nepal through impeding HIV prevention initiatives. In order to meet these objectives, this strategy has been developed. The strategy broadly focuses on prevention as the fundamental basis for an effective response within the Nepal Police. The strategy recognizes the importance of research, accurate surveillance systems, and evaluation and monitoring of interventions. The strategy is guided by underlying principles including a rights-based approach, high-level leadership and commitment, reduction of stigma and discrimination, and greater involvement of people living with HIV/AIDS (GIPA).
    English
    NEP_PoliceStrategy.pdf
  • After the return to civilian rule and “re-certification” for USAID programs, the POLICY Project was among the first of USAID’s implementing partners to establish a program in Nigeria. The POLICY Project’s purpose was to strengthen the policy process in population, reproductive health, and HIV/AIDS as a basis for improved services. The project began working in Nigeria in late 1999, and set up an office with local staff by mid-2000. In 2002, the scope of the project was expanded from HIV/AIDS, population, and reproductive health to include child survival. POLICY’s principal partners in government were federal line ministries, two national commissions (planning and population), and the National Action Committee on AIDS(NACA), a multisectoral committee that develops and coordinates the national response to HIV/AIDS. Outside government, POLICY engaged in policy development, advocacy, and targeted public information activities with several national and regional Christian and Islamic bodies and numerous non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and community-based organizations(CBOs), including six NGO networks and one network of HIV/AIDS researchers. The project also worked at the state level by advocating for national policies in several states, developing an adolescent reproductive health policy and strategic plan in Edo State, and focusing on the northern states through activities with both federal ministry and NGO partners. Collaboration with donor agencies included communication and attendance at each other’s meetings on shared concerns, and technical or financial input on specific tasks such as assessments for donor program planning and co-sponsorship of conferences and events. POLICY and some donors also participated as stakeholders in NACA and in activities such as advocacy visits to states.
    English
    NIG_PP_Nigeria.pdf
  • The POLICY Project, in collaboration with the Ministry of Social Affairs, Veterans, and Youth Rehabilitation, and CARE Cambodia, facilitated a two-day workshop on August 23 and 24th, 2004, titled 'Orphans and Vulnerable Children Dialogue Workshop'. Participants included a multi-sector group of representatives from government ministries, NGOs, Civil Society groups, donors, Bhuddist pagodas, people living with HIV/AIDS, and children who have been orphaned due to HIV/AIDS. The purpose of the workshop was to disseminate findings of two research studies that have been conducted by the POLICY Project and CARE, Cambodia, in urban and rural areas of Cambodia; to make program and policy recomendations for improving Cambodia's response to the OVC crisis; and to coordinate with stakeholders from all sectors in order to move forward to address OVC issues at the program and policy levels. This report provided a summary of the activities and results of the workshop. (Hard copy available in English and Khmer)
    English
    CAM_OVC_PolicyDialogue.pdf
  • Other
    UKR_PolBrief_(u).pdf
  • The workshop, Pathways to Contraceptive Security, October 31–November 1, 2002, in Konya, Turkey, was organized by the Ministry of Health General Directorate of Maternal and Child Health and Family Planning (GD MCH/FP) and the POLICY Project. Many organizations and professionals contributed not only to this workshop but also to previous policy analysis and dialogue initiatives that have guided the National Family Planning Program in Turkey to achieve contraceptive self-reliance. The workshop embodied the strategic thinking that drives the National Family Planning Program and reflected the visions of the many policy champions, planners, and service providers who share responsibility for public health in Turkey.
    English
    Tur_PCS.pdf
  • English
    RU_AdFlyer.pdf
  • This advocacy workshop, held on May 6–9 and 13–14, 2002, was the second in a series of workshops to establish a network and train its members in the design and conduct of an advocacy campaign directed at one of the key policy issues from the Reproductive Health Action Plan (RHAP). Workshop facilitators were Susan Richiedei (POLICY/Washington), Anne Jorgensen (POLICY/Washington), Issa Almasarweh (POLICY/Jordan), and Basma Ishaqat (POLICY/Jordan).
    English
    Jor_05_02.pdf
  • English
    jorpes.pdf
  • Proceedings from the workshop 'Prevention of HIV/AIDS in Uttar Pradesh', January 29-31, 2004. The workshop brought together policy makers, bureaucrats, program managers, people living with AIDS, academicions and activitist to discuss and debate the present state of affairs and discuss means of strengthening prevention and control of HIV/AIDS in the state. 25 papers were presented by experts on different themes and best practices.
    English
    IND_PrevHIV_UP.ps.pdf
  • This study documents experiences and analyzes the underlying causes and factors related to availability, access, effectiveness, and gaps in health services for women living with HIV or AIDS. The report also provides recommendations for formulating a sensitive and appropriate response to the healthcare needs of women living with HIV/AIDS and improving HIV prevention.
    English
    MEX_WomenLWHA.pdf
  • Concerns about ensuring an uninterrupted supply of contraceptives around the world has lead to a multi-agency effort called The Strategic Pathway to Reproductive Health Commodity Security (SPARHCS.) In August of 2002 the SPARHCS approach was field tested in Nigeria. A technical advisory group was established to use the FAMPLAN model to determine the country’s contraceptive commodity needs for five years (2003 – 2007). This document includes the results of the FAMPLAN application.
    English
    NIG_FAMPLAN.pdf
  • Kenya’s family planning (FP) success has been overshadowed by the HIV/AIDS epidemic, which was declared a national crisis in 1999. Data from the 2003 Demographic and Health Survey in Kenya (KDHS) provide a cautionary tale of the unintended outcomes associated with the shift in attention of programs and resources from family planning primarily to HIV/AIDS. From a steady rise in contraceptive prevalence from 27 percent in 1989 to 39 percent in 1998, contraceptive prevalence stalled and remained at 39 percent in 2003. Yet, the surveys have consistently shown that many women report wanting to delay or limit future births but are not using any FP method. In the context of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, is there still a need for family planning? As government and donor resources in Africa shift increasingly to support of AIDS programs, the answer to this question is crucial. The purpose of this study was to explore how family planning is being implemented in Kenya in the context of high HIV prevalence. A similar study was conducted in Zambia.
    English
    Ken_FGD.pdf
  • In the context of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, is there still a need for family planning? As government and donor resources in Africa shift increasingly to support AIDS programs, the answer to this question is crucial. The objective of this study was to document the status and trends in Zambia’s family planning (FP) program in the context of high prevalence of HIV/AIDS. A similar study was conducted in Kenya. This qualitative research study used focus group discussions (FGDs) to examine the views of 215 service providers, HIV-positive (HIV+) women, and FP/antenatal care (ANC) clients on the need for family planning within the context of the HIV epidemic. The study was conducted in Lusaka, Livingstone, Kitwe, and Kabwe in 2003.
    English
    Zam_FGD.pdf
  • A workshop report summarizing the skills government employees learned to effectively implement HIV/AIDS programs at the department level.
    English
    SA_DPSAIndabaIII.pdf
  • In the summer of 2003, USAID's Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean launched regional initiative to determine how contraceptive security in the LAC region could be more effectively addressed and strengthened in light of the phase-out of contraceptive donations. The initiative, which is being implemented by the POLICY and DELIVER Projects, commenced in July 2003 with a Regional Meeting in Managua, Nicaragua. Seventy representatives from governments, nongovernmental organizations, UNFPA, and USAID from nine Latin American countries came together to discuss and share their country's experiences with donor phase-out and efforts to achieve contraceptive security. The meeting was followed by two-week country assessments in Bolivia, Honduras, Nicaragua, Paraguay, and Peru, which were conducted between September 2003 and May 2004. Each assessment resulted in a full assessment report and an accompanying summary of country-level findings. Findings in each country were also presented to stakeholders at the end of each assessment. A regional report describes the findings at the regional level and makes recommendations for regional contraceptive security initiatives.
    English
    Regional_CS_Eng.pdf
  • Report on Workshop to Disseminate HIV/AIDS Prevalence Data in Mozambique
    Portuguese
    MozWksp9_01.pdf
  • This paper provides a background on the financing of health care and identifies and discusses reproductive health policy issues in the context of the social health insurance system in Romania.
    English
    Romania_Lazarescu_HI_paper.pdf
  • This report contains abstracts from the Russian Federation legislative and regulatory acts (laws, decrees, executive orders, and instructions) governing the area of reproductive health, and also from draft laws currently under consideration by the State Duma of the Russian Federation. Although reproductive health issues are inevitably closely related to various areas of law (ranging from work safety to environmental law), this report focuses on the area of healthcare.
    English
    Rusrhleg.pdf
  • This report contains abstracts from the Russian Federation legislative and regulatory acts (laws, decrees, executive orders, and instructions) governing the area of reproductive health, and also from draft laws currently under consideration by the State Duma of the Russian Federation. Although reproductive health issues are inevitably closely related to various areas of law (ranging from work safety to environmental law), this report focuses on the area of healthcare.
    Russian
    RUS_RHLeg_Rus.pdf
  • The purpose of this study was to provide the Population Development Group with evidence that operational policy barriers result in inefficient resource use in reproductive health care in Ukraine and to recommend solutions. The analysis will serve as the foundations for recommendations that the MOH will make to the Cabinet of Ministers on ways to remove the existing operational policy barriers. The specific objectives of this study were to understand, analyze, and recommend solutions to the following problems: -Inefficiencies at the facility level in the areas of staff time use, bed capacity and use, and availability and use of supplies and equipment; -Infelxibility in allocating funds for health care from local budget and financial decision making at the facility level; -The shadow economy in health care from the client perspective (and its relationship to inefficiencies in financial resource allocation); and -Poor quality of care from the client perspective (and its relationship to inefficiencies in health care facilities).
    English
    UKR_RH_Efficiency.pdf
  • The following report provides a summary analysis of the resources required to achieve the broad objectives outlined in Cambodia’s National Strategic Plan (NSP). This report outlines the costs associated with each strategic objective.
    English
    CAM_costing.pdf
  • The purpose of this report is to identify laws considered impediments to HIV/AIDS prevention and care, suggest law reforms considered necessary to advance HIV/AIDS prevention and care, and suggest enactment of laws considered necessary to advance HIV/AIDS prevention and care in Tanzania. The information in the report is presented in three parts, constituting fifteen chapters, references, and annexes.
    English
    TZlawreview.pdf
  • Summary booklet of the full report "Review and Assessment of Laws Affecting HIV/AIDS in Tanzania," which reviews and makes recommendations to reform and enact laws to advance HIV/AIDS prevention and care in Tanzania.
    English
    TZlawreview_sumbooklet.pdf
  • This paper synthesizes the results of nine case studies carried out in: Andhrah Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh. The objectives of the case studies were to: 1) examine the transition from the original target system to the target free approach, and subsequently the community needs assessment approach; 2) Analyze the countrywide implementation of CNA and the impact of the new system on programme performance 3) Identify programmatic shortcomings that affected the transition, draw lessons from the experiences of implementation, and identify steps that could be taken to improve the management and performance of the new client-oriented system.
    English
    IND_CNA.pdf
  • USAID prepared pathways to achieve the strategic objective of reduced fertility and improved reproductive health in North India. Intermediate results to achieve the strategic objective have been prepared in December 1997 for the IFPS Project in Uttar Pradesh that covers 28 districts. Subsequently in January 1999, the SO2 Indicator survey was undertaken in five districts with a sample size of 5000 households to measure the progress made by the IFPS project during the calendar year 1998. In the following year, the study was undertaken in ten districts with a sample size of 10,000 households. Since the IFPS project was working in full gear in 15 priority districts and had started scaling-up its intervention in the 13 other PERFORM districts, it was desired to have separate estimates for priority and other PERFORM districts. Hence, the SO2 Indicator survey for year 1999 was undertaken with a sample size of 10,000 households covering 10 out of the 28 districts. The sample size was proportionally split between the priority and other PERFORM districts. As slightly over three-fifths of the population was in the priority districts, 6130 households from six districts were covered and the remaining 3870 households were from four other PERFORM districts. The selected priority districts were Etawah, Gorakhpur, Varanasi, Allahabad, Kanpur nagar and Meerut while the other PERFORM districts included Gonda, Azamgarh, Bareilly and Saharanpur.
    English
    India_SO2Report-2000.pdf
  • Spanish
    GUA_SitFin_Educacion.pdf
  • Spanish
    GUA_SitFin_Salud.pdf
  • The National Centre for Youth Development (NCYD) commissioned this situation assessment as part of its mandate to provide intersectoral coordination among various government and nongovernmental agencies to fulfil youth development objectives. Its purpose is to set a baseline for assessing the current level of youth development, highlight vital social and environmental factors which affect youths’ needs and abilities, track risk trends, and monitor positive advances in youth development. As a companion piece to this assessment, a Youth Programmatic Inventory gives the NCYD and other agencies an up-to-date accounting of active youth-serving organizations in Jamaica. It is hoped that these documents will help the NCYD and its partners to identify gaps in national coverage of youth development issues and priority areas of youth development. The situation assessment analyzes the status of youth in Jamaica using a set of roughly 70 quantitative indicators, drawn from the best sources available in Jamaica and elsewhere. For purposes of this document, youth are defined as between 10 and 24 years, unless otherwise indicated. The report presents data for the entire age range, or for subgroup of this range, where appropriate or where the data allows. Information is presented on trends and separate analyses are done by sex. Moreover, the analysis attempts to place findings on Jamaican youth within the national and regional context.
    English
    JAM_sitassess.pdf
  • Part of the Siyam'kela Project, which aims to pave the way for stigma-mitigation by developing well-researched indicators of HIV/AIDS stigma and discrimination. This document presents the findings that informed the development of indicators for internal and external stigma and the findings which informed guidelines for stigma intervention. This document is also a qualitative exploration of stigma experiences and perceptions in focus groups.
    English
    SA_Siyam_fieldwork.pdf
  • Promising practice of stigma-mitigation efforts from across South Africa: Reflections from the faith-based organizations, HIV/AIDS managers in the workplace, and people living with HIV/AIDS who interact with the media. This document is part of the Siyam'kela project, which has been designed to explore HIV/AIDS stigma, an aspect of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, which is having a profouncly negative effect on the response to people living with, and or affected by HIV/AIDS. This document focuses on promising practices which reduce stigma and discrimination.
    English
    SAF_Siyamkela_PromisePractice.pdf
  • Part of the Siyam'kela Project, which aims to pave the way for stigma-mitigation by developing well-researched indicators of HIV/AIDS stigma and discrimination. This document presents findings of research related to HIV/AIDS and the media and reccomendations.
    English
    SA_Siyam_mediaguide.pdf
  • Part of the Siyam'kela Project, which aims to pave the way for stigma-mitigation by developing well-researched indicators of HIV/AIDS stigma and discrimination. This document presents findings of research related to HIV/AIDS and faith based organizations and recommendations for FBOs working in the field of HIV/AIDS.
    English
    SA_Siyam_FBO.pdf
  • Part of the Siyam'kela Project, which aims to pave the way for stigma-mitigation by developing well-researched indicators of HIV/AIDS stigma and discrimination. This document presents findings of research related to HIV/AIDS and the workplace and recommendations for work-place policy.
    English
    SA_Siyam_workplaceguide.pdf
  • This report describes the National Men's Imbizo on HIV/AIDS held October 4-5, 2002. The purpose of the imbozo was to mobilize and senstize men to become more active in HIV/AIDS activities, and to encourage networking between these men.
    English
    Mens_Imbizo.pdf
  • This report is a result of qualitative research investigating the challenges to GIPA, conducted in Cambodia from March 2003 - March 2005, as well as outcomes from training programs conducted with HIV-positive Cambodians over the same period. The research seeks to develop a deeper understanding of the role of HIV-positive people in the Cambodian response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The research examined the experiences and perceptions of HIV-positive people, HIV/AIDS service providers, policy makers and programmers related to the challenges to HIV-positive people's meaningful involvement in the design and implementation of AIDS policy and programming in Cambodia. The study also gathered information from HIV-positive people and HIV/AIDS service providers, policy makers and programmers to identify the necessary mechanisms to promote and sustain involvement. The study provided an opportunity to reflect on the level of involvement of people infected and affected by HIV and AIDS and to promote dialogue amongst HIV-positive people and other stake-holders to secure their greater involvement in Cambodia's response to the epidemic.
    English
    CAM_StepsToEmpower_En.pdf
  • This report summarizes the POLICY Project in Nepal from 2002-2006. This report addresses the policy environment when the project began, major accomplishments, and remaining challenges to the enabling evironment for HIV and AIDS programming in Nepal.
    English
    Strengthening the HIV & AIDS Policy Environment in Nepal- Nepal Final Report.pdf
  • In November 2004, Uganda’s cabinet of ministers adopted a policy on orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) following three years of organised and structured data collection, analysis, stakeholder workshops, and other efforts to which the POLICY Project contributed. POLICY offered to further examine the adequacy of existing laws and policies for meeting needs of OVC and to assess the degree to which existing laws and policies are implemented, identify weaknesses in enforcement provisions and institutional arrangements, and make recommendations for responding to legal-policy gaps and strengthening enforcement mechanisms. Part One of this summary describes the first study of legal-policy issues and Part Two describes the analysis and recommendations regarding the National Council for Children. The full reports of the studies can be obtained upon request from the POLICY/Uganda or POLICY/DC office.
    English
    Uga_OVC_Sum.pdf
  • The Family Planning Program Effort Index (FPE) is a composite measure of family planning program efforts using the expert judgment of people who are very knowledgeable about the family planning program in a country or a region. It tests how program efforts interact with socioeconomic settings to increase contraceptive use and lower fertility rates. This is the fifth cycle to be conducted in Ethiopia. The FPE was previously conducted in 1982, 1989, 1994 and 1999. The study is based on an extensive questionnaire containing 125 items. Respondents are requested to address each one of these items. The items are coded and combined to give 30 program elements. These 30 program elements in turn are organized into four major categories: 1. Policy and stage setting activities. 2. Service and service related activities. 3. Evaluation and record keeping. 4. Availability of fertility control methods.
    English
    ETH_FPE_2002.pdf
  • This report presents information regarding practicing midwives’ skill sets, scopes and protocols of practice, and referral systems to identify gaps in access and service delivery, legal and operational barriers to practice, and geographical disparities in coverage. These data provide important direction for policymakers to increase the ability of Ghanaian women to access comprehensive services and strengthen midwives’ ability to provide those services. Midwives are important providers of reproductive healthcare in Ghana. There are more than 3,379 midwives in Ghana compared with fewer than 2,000 physicians. While midwives practice throughout the country, physicians tend to be clustered in large cities. As a result, midwives provide the majority of antenatal, delivery, and newborn and postpartum care, including emergency obstetric care, especially in rural areas. Further, midwives provide family planning services, postabortion care, treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), nutrition and breastfeeding counseling, and child health services. The purpose of the Midwife Mapping Project was to assess the accessibility to comprehensive reproductive healthcare, including routine and emergency obstetric care, as provided by midwives, as well as to learn about midwives’ experiences in service provision throughout Ghana. The study included three complementary research methodologies: • Policy environment analysis • Survey of practicing midwives and geospatial mapping • Focus group discussions (FGDs) with practicing and non-practicing midwives
    English
    Ghana Midwife Mapping final.pdf
  • To begin to protect young men and young women from this heightened risk of HIV/AIDS, it is important that policymakers and program managers gain a better understanding of transactional sex among youth. Policymakers and program managers need answers to questions such as: Are youth at higher risk of engaging in transactional sex than other groups? What factors influence youth to engage in transactional sex? And, what subgroups of youth are particularly vulnerable to engaging in transactional sex? This study seeks to answer these questions by exploring whether adolescent boys and girls are at higher risk for engaging in transactional sex than older men and women by analyzing data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) from 12 sub-Saharan African countries including Benin, Burkina Faso, Central African Republic (CAR), Chad, Guinea, Kenya, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Togo, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. We also examine the relationship between young men and young women’s individual socio-demographic characteristics and the probability that they will engage in the exchange of sex for money.
    English
    Trans_Sex.pdf
  • The HIV and AIDS epidemic is a health and development crisis throughout much of sub-Saharan Africa, including Zimbabwe. Analysis of the most recent sources of information indicated that 24.6 percent of the entire adult population ages 15-49 is currently infected, making Zimbabwe one of the most seriously affected countries in the entire world. This document was prepared under the sponsorship of the Ministry of Health and Child Welfare and National AIDS Council. It is intended to provide information about the HIV and AIDS epidemic in Zimbabwe as one way to contribute to improved multi-sectoral planning and policy dialogue.
    English
    ZIM_AIM.pdf
  • The greater involvement of people living with HIV/AIDS (GIPA) is being promoted as a cornerstone of HIV/AIDS prevention and care and support. The concept of GIPA emerged as a formal statement at the Paris Summit on AIDS in 1994. However, the concept of PLHA involvement expressed by GIPA has been a feature of community responses to HIV/AIDS from very early in the epidemic. This research analyzes the perceptions of GIPA in Nepal from the perspective of policymakers, international organizations, NGOs, and people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHAs).
    English
    NEP_HeartofMatter.pdf
  • The purpose of this paper is to summarize POLICY’s assistance in Turkey featuring results and lessons learned to date. In addition to this introduction, the paper is organized in three parts representing technical components of POLICY’s work in Turkey: Contraceptive Self-reliance, National Strategies for Women’s Health and Family Planning, and Nongovernmental Organization (NGO) Strengthening and Advocacy. This paper reflects experiences through December 2001 and will be updated at the close of the project in December 2002.
    English
    TURfinal.pdf
  • The Policy Environment Score (PES) is intended to measure the degree to which the policy environment supports the reproductive health of the population, with particular focus on access to high quality family planning and reproductive health services. It is designed to reflect both the current level of support and the changes that take place over a one to three year period as a result of policy activities. The POLICY Project has developed a prototype questionnaire to offer to each interested country, with the understanding that local adaptations would often be desirable. That was the case in Egypt, and considerable thought was given to the particular items of the questionnaire. The PES instrument has now been used 5 times in Egypt (1996, 1997, 1998, 1999 and 2000).
    English
    PES_2000.pdf
  • Prior to 2002, two rounds of the PES had been fielded in Jamaica, the first in 1999 and the second in 2000. These rounds were conducted by the POLICY Project on behalf of USAID/Kingston (McClure et al., 2000; Strachan et al., 2001). Those rounds of the PES included four components of reproductive health, namely family planning, safe pregnancy, STDs/AIDS, and adolescents. This 2002 round of the PES, conducted jointly by Youth.now and the POLICY Project, focuses exclusively on adolescents. Called the Expanded ARH PES, the 2002 round included the same questions regarding adolescent reproductive health (ARH) that were used in 2000 and 1999 (hereafter referred to as the “original” ARH PES) and also included a number of additional questions to more accurately reflect the policy environment for ARH in Jamaica in 2002, given policy and program activities undertaken over the past few years (hereafter referred to as the “expanded” ARH PES). The 2002 Expanded ARH PES included the seven components of political support, policy formulation, organizational structure, legal and regulatory, program resources, program components, and evaluation and research. To measure change in the policy environment, respondents were asked to rate each item twice—once to reflect the current status in 2002, as well as once to indicate the status one year earlier in 2001.
    English
    JAM_PES2003.pdf
  • English
    JamPESRpt_rev_.PDF
  • The Policy Environment Score (PES) has been designed to measure the overall status of the policy environment in a particular country, evaluating changes in the policy environment over time, and identifying those areas most in need of improvement with particular focus on access to high quality reproductive health services including family planning, adolescent reproductive health and HIV/AIDS, safe motherhood and post-abortion care. The PES is designed to provide a quick assessment of the policy environment at low cost. It necessarily contains a number of items that depend on the judgment of experts. It is not designed to provide a comprehensive assessment of the policy environment, but to be part of a system for measuring the impact of policy activities. The policy environment score was first undertaken in Nigeria in 2000 by the POLICY Project. Though the report was not officially published the results were used to inform the review of the National Population Policy. This 2002 assessment of the policy environment in Nigeria in the year 2002 is being carried out by the Department of Community Development and Population Activities with the technical assistance of the POLICY Project, Nigeria. The knowledge gained will be used in informing future planning for reproductive health activities in the areas of family planning (FP), STI/HIV/AIDS and Adolescent Reproductive Health (ARH). It will also reveal areas of the policy environment that will also need improvement through advocacy and planning.
    English
    NIG_PES2002.pdf
  • This report shares findings from a pilot of the POLICY Project’s Gender Equitable Male Involvement (GEMI) Assessment Tool. In October 2002, the POLICY Project used the GEMI tool to conduct an assessment of the policy environment related to gender-equitable male involvement in Jamaica, with a focus on male youth. Based on interviews with key stakeholders from a cross-section of government, civil society, and youth-serving organizations, the assessment sought to describe the current policy environment related to gender-equitable male involvement, and identify priority areas for developing or strengthening policies to support gender-equitable male involvement, and the related advocacy and policy dialogue, information, and capacity building needed to support this.
    English
    GEMI_Pilot_Jam.pdf
  • Cambodia is among the countries most severely affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Asia. In 2003, an estimated 123,100 adults in Cambodia were living with HIV/AIDS and 60,000 children were affected by HIV/AIDS. In responding to the epidemic, donors, policymakers, and program planners have had little country-specific information regarding the impact of HIV/AIDS and the effectiveness of interventions, impeding their ability to make decisions regarding resource allocation and program design. In response to this lack of data, the Royal Government of Cambodia (RGC) and the POLICY Project carried out this study, which served a dual purpose: (1) to identify the social and economic impact that HIV/AIDS is having on children, adolescents, and their guardians, and (2) to help policymakers, donors, and development partners identify policies and programs that would likely be effective in mitigating the impact of HIV/AIDS. This study demonstrates that it is imperative that policymakers, program managers, donors, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), PLHAs, and orphans and vulnerable children work together to identify a means of providing services that target the most vulnerable children while addressing the unique needs of every child. The recommendations set forth in this study are based on the study findings, as well as findings from a workshop that was held in August 2004.
    English
    CAM_OVC_En.pdf
  • Cambodia is among the countries most severely affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Asia. In 2003, an estimated 123,100 adults in Cambodia were living with HIV/AIDS and 60,000 children were affected by HIV/AIDS. In responding to the epidemic, donors, policymakers, and program planners have had little country-specific information regarding the impact of HIV/AIDS and the effectiveness of interventions, impeding their ability to make decisions regarding resource allocation and program design. In response to this lack of data, the Royal Government of Cambodia (RGC) and the POLICY Project carried out this study, which served a dual purpose: (1) to identify the social and economic impact that HIV/AIDS is having on children, adolescents, and their guardians, and (2) to help policymakers, donors, and development partners identify policies and programs that would likely be effective in mitigating the impact of HIV/AIDS. This study demonstrates that it is imperative that policymakers, program managers, donors, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), PLHAs, and orphans and vulnerable children work together to identify a means of providing services that target the most vulnerable children while addressing the unique needs of every child. The recommendations set forth in this study are based on the study findings, as well as findings from a workshop that was held in August 2004.
    Khmer
    CAM_OVC_Kh.pdf
  • Several countries bordering Viet Nam have experienced rapid increases in HIV infection rates in the last few years. During the 1990s, the HIV/AIDS epidemic also expanded quickly in Viet Nam. As of April 2003, Viet Nam had recorded 64,801 people infected with HIV, although estimates put the figure more realistically between 150,000 to 200,000. Major factors contributing the epidemic include a thriving commercial sex industry in which condom use is not the norm and sex workers are targeted with punitive actions rather than monitored for health problems; frequent population migration; injecting drug use; substantial sexual links between drug users and other communities; limited public discussion of HIV/AIDS; and pervasive stigma. The HIV/AIDS epidemic in Viet Nam is still in the “concentrated epidemic” stage. The disease has spread rapidly in specific subpopulations, particularly among injecting drug users (IDUs), sex workers, and males who have sex with males (MSM); however, it is not yet well established in the general population. However, the current status of the epidemic does not mean that it is compartmentalized or restricted to these groups. The active networks of risk within and among these subpopulations and the general population will determine the epidemic’s future course.
    English
    VIET_SEI.pdf
  • Synthesis of the Socioeconomic Impact study.
    English
    VIET_SEI_BP.pdf
  • This one page flyer highlights the accomplishments of POLICY's multisectoral citizen's groups in Mexico.
    English
    MCGOct03.pdf
  • This companion piece to the National RH Program, 2001-2005 document, provides information about the aggregate cost of the Program to central and local governments, as well as to non-governmental sources. It also provides more detailed information about the costs of each individual activity, thereby allowing program implementers to assess the pros and cons, as well as the feasibility of each activity.
    English
    UK_BRA.PDF
  • English
    Uknprh8.PDF
  • The success of the RHCS work in Madagascar, while noted by the USAID community and its implementing partners, has not been well documented. This assessment provides documentation and a clear description of the country's success in using the SPARHCS process to strengthen RHCS and reposition the FP program. These results can be seen as a success story for RFP and may be used as guidelines for countries currently planning for, or implementing, RHCS and RFP strategies. The RFP initiative is based on the premise that, with increased political commitment for financial and human resources for FP, strengthened participation and coordination among donors and partners, and more effective programming of resources toward technically sound programs, it will be possible to expand access and meet unmet need for family planning. This assessment documents the SPARHCS process, and its results, challenges, and recommendations for raising awareness of the FP program in Madagascar. The sources of information for this paper were the result of in-depth interviews with key stakeholders and a review of documents. The information presented in this paper highlights the success story of family planning and how the SPARHCS process contributed to repositioning family planning in Madagascar, and reports on the major results achieved thus far.
    English
    SPARHCS Madagascar Reposition FP Final report.pdf
  • Malawi has one of the highest national HIV prevalence rates in the world. The National AIDS Commission (NAC) estimates that the country has an adult (15-49) HIV prevalence rate of 15 percent. There are about one million Malawians who are HIV positive and over 265,000 reported cumulative cases of AIDS. By 1999, approximately 250 Malawians became infected with HIV on a daily basis and 40 percent of all new reported AIDS cases occurred in people under the age of 30. Stigma and discrimination surrounding HIV/AIDS serve as barriers to the proper care, treatment, and support of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA); discourage people from seeking voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) – an important aspect of prevention efforts and an entry point into care and the facilitation of positive living among PLWHA; and hinder the development of an enabling environment that promotes disclosure and living openly with HIV/AIDS. These results have consequences at the individual, family, community, and national levels as all efforts to prevent HIV transmission and mitigate the impacts of the HIV/AIDS epidemic are undermined by stigma and discrimination. This qualitative research study is based on data collected through focus group discussions (FGDs) with PLWHA in Malawi. It is part of a broader National HIV/AIDS Advocacy Project being executed by the Malawi Network of People Living with HIV/AIDS (MANET+) in fulfilment of the objective of advocating for the integration of stigma and discrimination-related issues into the National HIV/AIDS Policy. It emphasises three areas: care, treatment, and support services by PLWHA; VCT services; and disclosure of sero-status (by self and others). This report also explores the importance of greater involvement of PLWHA. The purpose of the National HIV/AIDS Advocacy Project is to catalyse the formulation of supportive HIV/AIDS policies, laws, and regulations.
    English
    MALA_MANET_FGD.pdf
  • This study was commissioned by CARE Cambodia and the Policy Project, and is intended to provide NGOs and the public sector with an overview of the current situation regarding voluntary confidential counselling and testing (VCCT) in Cambodia as well as to highlight some options for developing greater NGO/government interaction on VCCT. Both CARE and the Policy Project are committed to services that are built on a rights-based approach, and for this reason a key focus of the study is to identify ways of increasing the involvement of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) in the design, development and monitoring of services.
    English
    CAMB_VCT.pdf
  • Jamaican youth are key agents for social change, economic development, and technological innovation and are a major human resource for development. Youth ages 10 to 24 are also an important demographic group, comprising almost one-third of the population in the year 2000. To better understand and address the challenges youth in Jamaica face, the National Centre for Youth Development (NCYD) recently commissioned two studies, Situation Assessment Report, Youth in Jamaica, 2001 and Adolescent and Youth-Serving Organisations in Jamaica: Results from the Youth Programmatic Inventory (YPI) Survey. This document synthesizes information from the two studies to help in identifying important gaps and overlaps in the coverage of youth services, to inform the current review of the National Youth Policy, and to aid in the development of a strategic plan for implementing the national policy.
    English
    JAM_YJ.pdf