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Browse POLICY Project (1995-2006) Materials

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List entries are alphabetical by title and contain the title, abstract, language, and then the filename which is hyperlinked and will open in a new browser window. Many files are PDFs but some of the older ones are Word documents.

2002

  • Romania has been undergoing a series of health financing reforms designed to reduce heavy dependence on government financing, central planning, and health services monopolized by the state. These reforms include a national health insurance scheme, contraceptive security initiatives, and revolving drug funds at the subnational level. Contraceptive security is important as Romania is trying to shift from a reliance on abortion to more widespread use of contraception. In August 2000, the government approved policies regarding contraceptive security. This study responds to the aforementioned policy needs by presenting findings from a market segmentation analysis of the Romanian FP market. Specifically, the study identifies and defines market segments for FP and presents policy options for better targeting of public and private sector resources.
    English
    Rom_MarkSeg.pdf
  • The Fourth Edition of "AIDS in Ethiopia" is an update on the current information available on the HIV/AIDS situation in Ethiopia. The data upon which this edition is based has doubled in the past year. The third edition of "AIDS in Ethiopia (2000) used 15 surveillance sites. The current version is based on data from 34 sites, of which 28 are urban sites and 6 are rural sites. A special national level expert group meeting was convened to arrive at the national prevalence rate using the sentinel surveillance data. As a result of discussions of the expert group, Estie, a site formerly presumed to be a rural site, with an HIV prevalence rate of 10.7 percent in 2001, was reclassified as an urban site. This reclassification of Estie led to a 2001 estimate of HIV prevalence of 6.6 percent. The national adult HIV prevalence of 6.6 percent is less than the prevalence of 7.3 percent presented in the third edition. It is to be noted that this change in national HIV prevalence does not imply that the HIV epidemic in Ethiopia is declining. The current estimate is merely a result of more extensive surveillance data and the reclassification of Estie as an urban site. Urban HIV prevalence rates continue to be high at 13.7 percent while the HIV prevalence rate for rural areas remains relatively low at 3.7 percent. HIV prevalence for Addis Ababa is estimated to be 15.6 percent. The number of persons living with HIV/AIDS in 2001 is estimated at 2.2 million, including 2 million adults and 200,000 children. Approximately 10 percent of these or 219,400 are full blown AIDS cases. The highest prevalence of HIV is seen in the group 15 to 24 years of age, representing "recent infections". The age and sex distribution of reported AIDS cases shows that about 91 percent of infections occur among adults between 15 and 49 years. Given that the age range encompasses the most economically productive segment of the population, the epidemic impacts negatively on labor productivity. Work time is lost through frequent absenteeism, and decreased capacity to do normal work as the disease advances. There are also social consequences of the epidemic as caregivers and income generating members of the family die leaving behind orphans and other dependents. These events lead to an aggravation of the problems of poverty and social instability. The data also show that the number of females infected between 15 and 19 years is much higher than the number of males in the same age group. This discrepancy is attributable to earlier sexual activity among young females with older male partners. Although the government has made progress in the areas of education, access to health care and economic development, the AIDS epidemic is eroding those gains. The limited empirical data that is available shows that hospital bed occupancy rates for HIV/AIDS cases are increasing. The health care sector, military and the mobile work force are likely to be significantly affected. In view of the above issues, several measures need to be taken. Data from more rural sites needs to be included to represent rural areas more effectively. Attention to be focused on preventing the new generation from acquiring the infection, as they represent a "window of hope". More empirical research on the economic and social impact of HIV/AIDS needs to be conducted. There is a need to mobilize the efforts of the government, non-governmental organizations, community based organizations and other civil society organizations in providing care and support to people infected and affected by HIV/AIDS.
    English
    ETH_AIM_2002.pdf
  • A status report on the sociopolitical, economic, and policy climate on drug availability for People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and recommendations for future access.
    English
    NIG_ADOI.pdf
  • The National Centre for Youth Development (NCYD) created the Jamaica Youth Programmatic Inventory (YPI) as a database of active youth-serving organizations. The goal of the NCYD in collecting this information is to facilitate a national process of coordination and planning across sectors in an attempt to identify where gaps may exist in the array of programmes existing to address young people’s needs. The data was collected and analysed at two distinct levels: the organizational level, and the level of programmes directed at young people. 141 organizations are included in the YPI database encompassing 451 programmes in 358 locations serving hundreds of thousands of young people in every parish on the island.
    English
    JAM_YPI.pdf
  • Describes POLICY's approach to HIV/AIDS
    English
    POLICY_HIV.pdf
  • Describes POLICY's approach to human rights, stigma and discrimination
    English
    ATC_Human_Rights.pdf
  • At the start of the new century, Romania faces slow economic growth, rising poverty levels, and low health status, among other challenges. However, certain positive changes have occurred, notably improvements in reproductive health (RH). In August 2000, the government approved policies that paved the way for its groundbreaking approach to contraceptive security. These policies defined contraceptive security in terms of government financing for contraceptive commodities, targeting free public sector contraceptives to vulnerable segments of the population, establishing revolving funds to enable judets (districts) to purchase and sell contraceptives locally to nontargeted clients, and ensuring access especially in rural areas. Ministry of Health and Family (MOHF), in collaboration with the POLICY Project, undertook an assessment in March–May 2001 of how well the new national contraceptive security policies and laws were being translated into action at the service delivery level. Results of the assessment are presented in this paper. The paper starts with a socioeconomic and RH background and policy and program context. It then highlights operational constraints and other findings from the assessment using questions aimed at stimulating dialogue on policy barriers and their implications. These discussions are followed by policy options that might be considered in addressing the various operational barriers. The concluding section summarizes the key policy concerns and identifies what the authors believe are the most critical issues and policy options.
    English
    Rom_CS.pdf
  • This is a compilation of significant information and data on the current situation of child survival in Nigeria. Facts have been drawn from a wide range of sources including the Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (1999), Population Bureau, Federal Office of Statistics, National Planning Commission, UNICEF’s Children’s and Women’s Rights in Nigeria: A Wake-up Call—Situation Assessment and Analysis (2001), survey reports, academic articles, policy and programme documents, budget documents, and publications from development partners. This document is intended to serve as a concise public source of data on the major child survival issues in Nigeria and to assist policymakers to “put children first” in national priorities and in the design of public policies.
    English
    NIG_CSrevised.pdf
  • The overall objective of the study is to develop a financial sustainability strategy for contraceptive self-reliance (CSR) in the Philippines using a market segmentation approach. The development of such a strategy is in keeping with the statement of the Department of Health (DOH) in its 2001 Family Planning (FP) Policy that PhilHealth shall be a key partner in the mobilization of investments in the FP program, and that the DOH will adopt the recommendations of the technical working group on the Contraceptive Independence Initiative (CII). In particular, the CII will segment the population and will ensure the availability of commodities for all segments through direct subsidy, health insurance, socialized pricing, and/or commercial procurement.
    English
    PHIL_CSR.pdf
  • The overall objective of the study is to develop a financial sustainability strategy for contraceptive self-reliance (CSR) in the Philippines using a market segmentation approach. The development of such a strategy is in keeping with the statement of the Department of Health (DOH) in its 2001 Family Planning (FP) Policy that PhilHealth shall be a key partner in the mobilization of investments in the FP program, and that the DOH will adopt the recommendations of the technical working group on the Contraceptive Independence Initiative (CII). In particular, the CII will segment the population and will ensure the availability of commodities for all segments through direct subsidy, health insurance, socialized pricing, and/or commercial procurement.
    English
    PHIL_CSR_ES.pdf
  • The HIV/AIDS epidemic is having a wide impact on Nigeria. One of the more alarming is the emerging cohort of AIDS orphans and other vulnerable children (OVCs)—children who have lost either or both of their parents to AIDS. Experiences from other countries, such as Ethiopia, Uganda, and South Africa, where the epidemic is more advanced, tell us that AIDS orphans face serious threats to their well-being, and these threats can have far-reaching and long-term effects on society, public health, and the economy. Nigeria, like many sub-Saharan African countries, has a young population. Current estimates indicate that about 44 percent of the country’s population is under age 15. Unfortunately, a sizable proportion of these children have lost either one or both their parents. This report provides an estimate of orphans (under age 15) that have lost their parents to AIDS-related and non-AIDS-related causes for the 36 states of Nigeria and the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) between 2000 and 2015. The paper also briefly describes the methodology and data used to develop the estimates.
    English
    Nig_Orp_Proj.pdf
  • The objective of POLICY’s HIV/AIDS Program in Mexico is “to support the government’s effort to enhance the quality and sustainability of HIV/AIDS/STI services in targeted states.” The focus of the project in the three initial states of Yucatán, Guerrero and Mexico has been to promote coalition building and a participatory strategic planning process among diverse stakeholders. POLICY has worked in Mexico at the bequest of and in close collaboration with CENSIDA, the national agency responsible for oversight of HIV/AIDS services and prevention programs in Mexico. The principal purposes of the evaluation were to understand what worked well, where POLICY’s tools have been most successful, and what could be learned from mistakes. The evaluation was also an opportunity to elicit some lessons learned from the Multisectoral Citizens’ Groups (MCGs) in the first three states where the project has been active and to codify some common principles from POLICY’s process from the varied experiences in different states. Another area of inquiry focused on identifying other complementary processes that POLICY and CENSIDA could employ to strengthen the effectiveness of governmental and nongovernmental groups in transforming the policy process in targeted states. There was general agreement among all of the project’s stakeholders that they had made significant contributions to improvements in HIV/AIDS prevention activities and in the quality of services in Mexico by supporting local initiatives. Similarly, there was strong praise for the quality and dedication of the POLICY staff. In particular, the clients in the three states interviewed during the evaluation expressed an overwhelmingly positive experience with the project. The project has supported the formation of active MCGs in three states (Guerrero, Mexico, and Yucatán). Project staff also tried to organize a similar group in the Federal District (D.F.) but found that it was difficult to build the same level of commitment and coordination. Instead of supporting the formation of a MCG in the D.F., POLICY helped to develop a local council for HIV/AIDS prevention (CODFSIDA). Toward the end of 2001 POLICY had expanded its work to Campeche, Chiapas, Oaxaca, Quintana Roo, and Veracruz. The MCG in Yucatán will work with the groups in Campeche and Quintana Roo. This represents a new phase in the project whereby older groups provide technical assistance for the formation of new groups. Another innovation is that local groups in the newly participating states are conducted by the members of the multisectoral groups rather than by outside consultants.
    English
    Mexi_eval.pdf
  • This manual is designed to help manage the Government of Kenya's Facility Improvement Fund successfully in local health centres. Experience in the health centres has shown that implementation of the policies and procedures described in the manual will improve the collection and use of funds, and enhance patient and staff satisfaction with services.
    English
    KEN_FIF_doc.pdf
  • This manual provides a comlete set of guidelines for operations of the Health Boards and Committees.
    English
    KENGuidelines.pdf
  • Building on a participatory process that began more than a year ago with technical support from POLICY/South Africa, the Anglican Church of the Province of Southern Africa has adopted a provincial HIV/AIDS strategic plan for 2003–2006. Forged diocese-by-diocese, the plan represents the best of the Anglican Church’s collective wisdom and is designed to ensure that local approaches are used to address local concerns. Among the provisions in the document are plans to: ? Expand care and support efforts for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) through a trainer-of-trainers program involving members of the Mothers Union and the Anglican Women’s Fellowship; ? Conduct a pilot project on voluntary counseling and testing to explore the feasibility of providing these services through faith-based communities; ? Establish “Lay Leadership Training Academies” and clergy schools and training programs to build leadership skills, improve pastoral care, and strengthen commitment to address HIV/AIDS; ? Form of a committee on Sexuality Education and HIV Prevention to develop prevention programs and curricula geared toward youth; and ? Collaborate with multisectoral partners to outline a workplace policy on HIV/AIDS and catastrophic illnesses in order to help reduce stigma and discrimination. In addition, the participatory process used to develop the strategic plan is documented in a training manual so that it can be used as a model for other community- and faith-based organizations.
    English
    CPSA.pdf
  • AIDS Impacts in eight Francophone African countries.
    French
    FHAimpact.pdf
  • AIM projections, sentinel surveillance
    Portuguese
    brochura_sida.PDF
  • For the first time in the country, four states have taken initiative on their own and formulated state specific population policies. Processes followed to prepare population policies varied from one state to another and also the strategies selected for achieving population stabilization within a stipulated time period within the broad framework of reproductive and child health programme. All the four states, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, tried to set realistic objectives, integrate family planning services with maternal and child health services, encourage informed choice, address gender issues and decentralize the programme implementation to a large extent. Processes followed to formulate the policies largely included preparation of background papers, consultations with a wide range of stakeholders including women, adolescent, non-government organizations and private sector, discussions within the department of health and family welfare and with other development departments and involvement of political leaders and policy makers from the beginning in policy development. Given the involvement of diverse groups in consultative processes, building consensus is a difficult, cumbersome and time-consuming process. It is to the credit of these states who selected a difficult path of consultative processes and consensus building to formulate policies than the usually employed short cut method of producing a confidential document and getting it formally approved by the Cabinet and then announcing to the world the arrival of new era. More often than not, policies formulated without openness and broad consensus failed at implementation stages although policies formulated with consultation processes do not automatically guarantee success without implementation plans and follow up with the help of strengthened and effective monitoring systems. This paper illustrates the way UP Government has converted UP Population Policy into an implementation plan.
    English
    India_Pop_Policy_Imp.pdf
  • In the past few years, South African hospitals have become overcrowded and in many facilities AIDS patients outnumber patients with other illnesses. Home-based care is considered as an alternative to traditional institutionalised care, and focuses on palliative care within the home. The increasing number of patients hospitalised for an extended period of time has stretched the resources of the health care system. Discharging patients into the care of a home care programme allows for a shorter stay at the hospital, making more beds available for other patients and reducing costs to the institution. Releasing patients into the care of competent agencies that deliver quality home-based care services can allow hospital staff to have peace of mind and enhance the morale of health care providers in the face of an overwhelming situation. In 1999 POLICY Project supported seven hospices to incorporate the Integrated Community-based Home Care (ICHC) model into their operational activities. This report documents the critical elements of the ICHC model and reflect on the experiences of those working in the field. Objectives of the research were to: 1) identify and discuss key similarities and differences between the hospice ICHC model and other home-based care models used in South Africa; 2) identify and critically review the core elements related to the ICHC model as implemented by Hospice Association of South Africa; and, 3) highlight key aspects of best practice related to the hospice ICHC model.
    English
    SA_Hospice.pdf
  • The first behavioural survey conducted in the Nigerian Armed Forces to elicit behavioural information that would contribute to a better understanding of the dynamics and underlying factors of the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and HIV/AIDS in the military was carried out between May and August 2001. The nationally representative survey was conducted amongst nearly 1,600 military personnel randomly selected from the three service arms of the Nigerian Armed Forces. Detailed information on the knowledge and attitudes regarding STDs and HIV/AIDS and on risky behaviour patterns was elicited. Also, information on some socio-demographic factors that could have possible explanatory value or confounding effects was obtained. The survey reveals that Nigerian military personnel are very educated and dedicated, with long-term career investments in the military that imply personal and professional hardships and risks. Of concern is that Nigerian military personnel find themselves in professional and personal situations that lead to engaging in high-risk behaviours that could put them at risk of contracting STDs, including HIV. Furthermore, in view of the fact that military personnel live with and interact freely with the civilian population, they could serve as a potential core transmission group for these infections to the larger population. This is of great concern and calls for prompt interventions. Whilst military personnel are more aware of HIV/AIDS than the general population, more could be done by the Nigerian military to protect their dedicated officers and men to the extent possible from the risks to which they are exposed.
    English
    Nig_AFPAC_KAB.pdf
  • HIV/AIDS interventions are currently being designed and carried out in the developing world. Some of these interventions are evaluated by randomized controlled trials, with accompanying cost analyses, and others are evaluated with small cross-sectional surveys. The process of designing and evaluating interventions can be difficult and time-consuming due to the wide variety and complexity of epidemiologic and ethical issues related to HIV/AIDS. In order to provide assistance to those responsible for implementing prevention studies and to those studying the results, a systematic review of the HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections (STI) intervention literature was conducted. The literature review was used to develop a searchable Excel workbook of published and non-published HIV/AIDS intervention studies in the developing world. (PDF File)
    English
    HIV-AIDSLiteratureDB.PDF
  • Excel Spreadsheet companinon to Literature Database for Evaluating HIV/AIDS Interventions.
    English
    Literature Database 1 Mar 20081.xls
  • Summary report of the evaluation of the master trainers programme. Local government councillors and officials were trained in order to build the capacity of local governments in addressing the HIV/AIDS epidemic.
    English
    SA_LGEval.pdf
  • During the process of formulating the Kenya National HIV/AIDS Strategic Plan, some of the gender dimensions of the epidemic had been recognised. It was noted that a striking feature of the epidemic was its impact on women as compared to men; the incidence of HIV/AIDS among women was rising at a shocking rate and women were being infected at an earlier age than men were. However, explicit strategies that focused specifically on gender issues were not included in the development of policies or programmes under the five priority areas. In 2001, as the gender aspects of the epidemic became clearer and it was recognised that gender was playing a crucial role in the dynamics of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, the National AIDS Control Council established a Technical Sub-Committee on Gender and HIV/AIDS Task Force. It was agreed that the best approach would be to engender the existing Kenya National HIV/AIDS Strategic Plan because it is the key document that guides and co-ordinates all responses to HIV/AIDS in Kenya. The Technical Sub-Committee’s mandate was to formulate guidelines and create a strategic framework through which gender concerns could be integrated into the analyses, formulation and monitoring of policies and programmes relating to the five priority areas of the Kenya National HIV/AIDS Strategic Plan so as to ensure that the beneficial outcomes are shared equitably by all – women, men, boys and girls. The gender analysis and mainstreaming strategies contained in this document are centrally informed by two National AIDS Control Council commissioned field studies carried out in October 2001 and May 2002. The findings of the field studies illustrate how different attributes and roles societies assign to males and females profoundly affect their ability to protect themselves against HIV/AIDS and cope with its impact. Examples range from the gender issues that render both men and women vulnerable to HIV infection to the ways in which gender influences men and women’s responsibility for, and access to, treatment, care and support. The findings from the field studies and the resulting gender analyses illustrate that gender roles and relations powerfully influence the course and impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Gender-related factors shape the extent to which men, women, boys and girls are vulnerable to HIV infection, the ways in which AIDS affects them, and the kinds of responses that are feasible in different communities and societies. The control of the spread of HIV/AIDS is dependent on the recognition of women’s rights in all spheres of life and therefore, women’s empowerment is an important tool in the fight against HIV/AIDS. Because the HIV/AIDS pandemic is fuelled by gender inequalities, a proactive engendered response is required to minimise its impact. It is through this document that the Technical Sub- Committee on Gender hopes to ensure that the gender dimension of the HIV/AIDS epidemic does not remain just an intellectual idea, but through the identified strategies becomes a practical tool for guiding policy decisions and programming for all activities under the umbrella of the Kenya National HIV/AIDS Strategic Plan for 2000 - 2005.
    English
    Kenya_NACC_Gender.pdf
  • Brochure describing Malawi's National Reproductive Health Programme
    English
    Mala_broch.pdf
  • Recognizing the serious nature of HIV/AIDS and its impact on South Africa, the Department of Public Service and Administration (DPSA) initiated the Impact and Action Project in January 2000 which aims to ensure that the Public Service is able to sustain quality service in spite of the progression of the AIDS pandemic. In consultation with stakeholders, the DPSA developed a policy framework and regulations to guide departments on the minimum requirements to effectively manage HIV/AIDS in the workplace and to ensure a coordinated public response. This guide complements the regulations and provides practical advice and information on how to implement the regulations.
    English
    SA_HIVguide.pdf
  • English
    Moz_Manual.pdf
  • Worldwide, over 500,000 women and girls die of complications related to pregnancy and childbirth each year. The tragedy - and opportunity - is that most of these deaths can be prevented with cost-effective health care services. POLICY's MNPI series provides country-specific data on maternal and neonatal health programs in more than 30 developing countries. Based on a study conducted by the Futures Group and funded through the MEASURE Evaluation Project, the MNPI is a tool that can be used to: Assess current health care services; Identify program strengths and weaknesses; Plan strategies to address deficiencies; Encourage political and popular support for appropriate action; and Track progress over time.
    English
    Bangladesh_MNPI.pdf
  • Worldwide, over 500,000 women and girls die of complications related to pregnancy and childbirth each year. The tragedy - and opportunity - is that most of these deaths can be prevented with cost-effective health care services. POLICY's MNPI series provides country-specific data on maternal and neonatal health programs in more than 30 developing countries. Based on a study conducted by the Futures Group and funded through the MEASURE Evaluation Project, the MNPI is a tool that can be used to: Assess current health care services; Identify program strengths and weaknesses; Plan strategies to address deficiencies; Encourage political and popular support for appropriate action; and Track progress over time.
    English
    Cambodia_MNPI.pdf
  • Worldwide, over 500,000 women and girls die of complications related to pregnancy and childbirth each year. The tragedy - and opportunity - is that most of these deaths can be prevented with cost-effective health care services. POLICY's MNPI series provides country-specific data on maternal and neonatal health programs in more than 30 developing countries. Based on a study conducted by the Futures Group and funded through the MEASURE Evaluation Project, the MNPI is a tool that can be used to: Assess current health care services; Identify program strengths and weaknesses; Plan strategies to address deficiencies; Encourage political and popular support for appropriate action; and Track progress over time.
    English
    Egypt_MNPI.pdf
  • Worldwide, over 500,000 women and girls die of complications related to pregnancy and childbirth each year. The tragedy - and opportunity - is that most of these deaths can be prevented with cost-effective health care services. POLICY's MNPI series provides country-specific data on maternal and neonatal health programs in more than 30 developing countries. Based on a study conducted by the Futures Group and funded through the MEASURE Evaluation Project, the MNPI is a tool that can be used to: Assess current health care services; Identify program strengths and weaknesses; Plan strategies to address deficiencies; Encourage political and popular support for appropriate action; and Track progress over time.
    English
    Ethiopia_MNPI.pdf
  • Worldwide, over 500,000 women and girls die of complications related to pregnancy and childbirth each year. The tragedy - and opportunity - is that most of these deaths can be prevented with cost-effective health care services. POLICY's MNPI series provides country-specific data on maternal and neonatal health programs in more than 30 developing countries. Based on a study conducted by the Futures Group and funded through the MEASURE Evaluation Project, the MNPI is a tool that can be used to: Assess current health care services; Identify program strengths and weaknesses; Plan strategies to address deficiencies; Encourage political and popular support for appropriate action; and Track progress over time.
    English
    Ghana_MNPI.pdf
  • Worldwide, over 500,000 women and girls die of complications related to pregnancy and childbirth each year. The tragedy - and opportunity - is that most of these deaths can be prevented with cost-effective health care services. POLICY's MNPI series provides country-specific data on maternal and neonatal health programs in more than 30 developing countries. Based on a study conducted by the Futures Group and funded through the MEASURE Evaluation Project, the MNPI is a tool that can be used to: Assess current health care services; Identify program strengths and weaknesses; Plan strategies to address deficiencies; Encourage political and popular support for appropriate action; and Track progress over time.
    English
    Indonesia_MNPI.pdf
  • Worldwide, over 500,000 women and girls die of complications related to pregnancy and childbirth each year. The tragedy - and opportunity - is that most of these deaths can be prevented with cost-effective health care services. POLICY's MNPI series provides country-specific data on maternal and neonatal health programs in more than 30 developing countries. Based on a study conducted by the Futures Group and funded through the MEASURE Evaluation Project, the MNPI is a tool that can be used to: Assess current health care services; Identify program strengths and weaknesses; Plan strategies to address deficiencies; Encourage political and popular support for appropriate action; and Track progress over time.
    English
    Jamaica_MNPI.pdf
  • Worldwide, over 500,000 women and girls die of complications related to pregnancy and childbirth each year. The tragedy - and opportunity - is that most of these deaths can be prevented with cost-effective health care services. POLICY's MNPI series provides country-specific data on maternal and neonatal health programs in more than 30 developing countries. Based on a study conducted by the Futures Group and funded through the MEASURE Evaluation Project, the MNPI is a tool that can be used to: Assess current health care services; Identify program strengths and weaknesses; Plan strategies to address deficiencies; Encourage political and popular support for appropriate action; and Track progress over time.
    English
    Kenya_MNPI.pdf
  • Worldwide, over 500,000 women and girls die of complications related to pregnancy and childbirth each year. The tragedy - and opportunity - is that most of these deaths can be prevented with cost-effective health care services. POLICY's MNPI series provides country-specific data on maternal and neonatal health programs in more than 30 developing countries. Based on a study conducted by the Futures Group and funded through the MEASURE Evaluation Project, the MNPI is a tool that can be used to: Assess current health care services; Identify program strengths and weaknesses; Plan strategies to address deficiencies; Encourage political and popular support for appropriate action; and Track progress over time.
    English
    Malawi_MNPI.pdf
  • Worldwide, over 500,000 women and girls die of complications related to pregnancy and childbirth each year. The tragedy - and opportunity - is that most of these deaths can be prevented with cost-effective health care services. POLICY's MNPI series provides country-specific data on maternal and neonatal health programs in more than 30 developing countries. Based on a study conducted by the Futures Group and funded through the MEASURE Evaluation Project, the MNPI is a tool that can be used to: Assess current health care services; Identify program strengths and weaknesses; Plan strategies to address deficiencies; Encourage political and popular support for appropriate action; and Track progress over time.
    English
    Nepal_MNPI.pdf
  • Worldwide, over 500,000 women and girls die of complications related to pregnancy and childbirth each year. The tragedy - and opportunity - is that most of these deaths can be prevented with cost-effective health care services. POLICY's MNPI series provides country-specific data on maternal and neonatal health programs in more than 30 developing countries. Based on a study conducted by the Futures Group and funded through the MEASURE Evaluation Project, the MNPI is a tool that can be used to: Assess current health care services; Identify program strengths and weaknesses; Plan strategies to address deficiencies; Encourage political and popular support for appropriate action; and Track progress over time.
    English
    Nigeria_MNPI.pdf
  • Worldwide, over 500,000 women and girls die of complications related to pregnancy and childbirth each year. The tragedy - and opportunity - is that most of these deaths can be prevented with cost-effective health care services. POLICY's MNPI series provides country-specific data on maternal and neonatal health programs in more than 30 developing countries. Based on a study conducted by the Futures Group and funded through the MEASURE Evaluation Project, the MNPI is a tool that can be used to: Assess current health care services; Identify program strengths and weaknesses; Plan strategies to address deficiencies; Encourage political and popular support for appropriate action; and Track progress over time.
    English
    Philippines_MNPI.pdf
  • Worldwide, over 500,000 women and girls die of complications related to pregnancy and childbirth each year. The tragedy - and opportunity - is that most of these deaths can be prevented with cost-effective health care services. POLICY's MNPI series provides country-specific data on maternal and neonatal health programs in more than 30 developing countries. Based on a study conducted by the Futures Group and funded through the MEASURE Evaluation Project, the MNPI is a tool that can be used to: Assess current health care services; Identify program strengths and weaknesses; Plan strategies to address deficiencies; Encourage political and popular support for appropriate action; and Track progress over time.
    English
    South_Africa_MNPI.pdf
  • Worldwide, over 500,000 women and girls die of complications related to pregnancy and childbirth each year. The tragedy - and opportunity - is that most of these deaths can be prevented with cost-effective health care services. POLICY's MNPI series provides country-specific data on maternal and neonatal health programs in more than 30 developing countries. Based on a study conducted by the Futures Group and funded through the MEASURE Evaluation Project, the MNPI is a tool that can be used to: Assess current health care services; Identify program strengths and weaknesses; Plan strategies to address deficiencies; Encourage political and popular support for appropriate action; and Track progress over time.
    English
    Tanzania_MNPI.pdf
  • Worldwide, over 500,000 women and girls die of complications related to pregnancy and childbirth each year. The tragedy - and opportunity - is that most of these deaths can be prevented with cost-effective health care services. POLICY's MNPI series provides country-specific data on maternal and neonatal health programs in more than 30 developing countries. Based on a study conducted by the Futures Group and funded through the MEASURE Evaluation Project, the MNPI is a tool that can be used to: Assess current health care services; Identify program strengths and weaknesses; Plan strategies to address deficiencies; Encourage political and popular support for appropriate action; and Track progress over time.
    English
    Uganda_MNPI.pdf
  • Worldwide, over 500,000 women and girls die of complications related to pregnancy and childbirth each year. The tragedy - and opportunity - is that most of these deaths can be prevented with cost-effective health care services. POLICY's MNPI series provides country-specific data on maternal and neonatal health programs in more than 30 developing countries. Based on a study conducted by the Futures Group and funded through the MEASURE Evaluation Project, the MNPI is a tool that can be used to: Assess current health care services; Identify program strengths and weaknesses; Plan strategies to address deficiencies; Encourage political and popular support for appropriate action; and Track progress over time.
    English
    Vietnam_MNPI.pdf
  • Worldwide, over 500,000 women and girls die of complications related to pregnancy and childbirth each year. The tragedy - and opportunity - is that most of these deaths can be prevented with cost-effective health care services. POLICY's MNPI series provides country-specific data on maternal and neonatal health programs in more than 30 developing countries. Based on a study conducted by the Futures Group and funded through the MEASURE Evaluation Project, the MNPI is a tool that can be used to: Assess current health care services; Identify program strengths and weaknesses; Plan strategies to address deficiencies; Encourage political and popular support for appropriate action; and Track progress over time.
    English
    Zambia_MNPI.pdf
  • Worldwide, over 500,000 women and girls die of complications related to pregnancy and childbirth each year. The tragedy - and opportunity - is that most of these deaths can be prevented with cost-effective health care services. POLICY's MNPI series provides country-specific data on maternal and neonatal health programs in more than 30 developing countries. Based on a study conducted by the Futures Group and funded through the MEASURE Evaluation Project, the MNPI is a tool that can be used to: Assess current health care services; Identify program strengths and weaknesses; Plan strategies to address deficiencies; Encourage political and popular support for appropriate action; and Track progress over time.
    English
    Zimbabwe_MNPI.pdf
  • UNAIDS, USAID and the POLICY Project have developed the AIDS Program Effort Index (API) to measure program effort in the response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The index is designed to provide a profile that describes national effort and the international contribution to that effort. The API was applied to 40 countries in 2000. The results show that program effort is relatively high in the areas of legal and regulatory environment, policy formulation and organizational structure. Political support was somewhat lower but increased the most from 1998. Monitoring and evaluation and prevention programs scored in the middle range, about 50 out of 100 possible points. The lowest rated components were resources and care. The API also measured the availability of key prevention and care services. Overall, essential services are available to about half of the people living in urban areas but to only about one-quarter of the entire population. International efforts to assist country programs received relatively high rating in all categories except care. The results presented here will be supplemented later this year with a new component on human rights and a score that compares countries on program effort.
    Russian
    APIreportrus.pdf
  • UNAIDS, USAID and the POLICY Project have developed the AIDS Program Effort Index (API) to measure program effort in the response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The index is designed to provide a profile that describes national effort and the international contribution to that effort. The API was applied to 40 countries in 2000. The results show that program effort is relatively high in the areas of legal and regulatory environment, policy formulation and organizational structure. Political support was somewhat lower but increased the most from 1998. Monitoring and evaluation and prevention programs scored in the middle range, about 50 out of 100 possible points. The lowest rated components were resources and care. The API also measured the availability of key prevention and care services. Overall, essential services are available to about half of the people living in urban areas but to only about one-quarter of the entire population. International efforts to assist country programs received relatively high rating in all categories except care. The results presented here will be supplemented later this year with a new component on human rights and a score that compares countries on program effort.
    Spanish
    APIreportsp.pdf
  • UNAIDS, USAID and the POLICY Project have developed the AIDS Program Effort Index (API) to measure program effort in the response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The index is designed to provide a profile that describes national effort and the international contribution to that effort. The API was applied to 40 countries in 2000. The results show that program effort is relatively high in the areas of legal and regulatory environment, policy formulation and organizational structure. Political support was somewhat lower but increased the most from 1998. Monitoring and evaluation and prevention programs scored in the middle range, about 50 out of 100 possible points. The lowest rated components were resources and care. The API also measured the availability of key prevention and care services. Overall, essential services are available to about half of the people living in urban areas but to only about one-quarter of the entire population. International efforts to assist country programs received relatively high rating in all categories except care. The results presented here will be supplemented later this year with a new component on human rights and a score that compares countries on program effort.
    French
    APIreportfr.pdf
  • Home-based care is an approach to care provision that combines clinical services, nursing care, counseling and psycho-spiritual care, and social support. It represents a continuum of care, from the health facility to the community to the family to the individual infected with HIV/AIDS, and back again. The Government of Kenya regards home-based care as a viable mechanism for delivering services because it has important benefits for everyone on that continuum. This guide summarizes the existing policy framework defining and supporting home-based care in Kenya. It then presents the preferred approach to programme design and service delivery.
    English
    Ken_HBC.pdf
  • These guidelines spell out the basic component of home care services, the programmatic standards, and the requirements for service delivery.
    English
    KEN_HBCPS.pdf
  • A major outcome of the International Conference on Population and Development held in Cairo in 1994 is that many countries including Nigeria shifted the focus of their population and development programmes to reproductive health. In this regard, the Reproductive Health Division of the Federal Ministry of Health, with assistance from POLICY Project, developed a 5-year RH strategic plan for the period 2002 – 2006. This strategic framework and plan is fashioned to translate the reproductive health policy into actionable plans. The goal of the strategic framework is to improve the quality of life of all Nigerians, men,, women and children through enhanced reproductive health. Thus the key objectives are to reduce the maternal mortality rate by 90% and perinatal mortality rate by 30% of the 1999 figures. Other objectives to reduce the prevalence of STIs and HIV infections, limit all forms of gender-based violence and other harmful practices, reduce the incidence of reproductive cancers and infertility, and increase contraceptive prevalence rate. In providing a comprehensive right based and gender sensitive reproductive health services, linkages between that make services comprehensive should be established such that health care staff, made polyvalent in their skills offer services in a wide range of RH care needs within each care centre. The strategic framework and plan also promotes community participation and encourages private sector support. Since health is under the concurrent list in Nigeria, the three tiers of government, shall spearhead the funding and implementation of the Plan with support from Developmental Agencies, International organizations and NGOs The following priority areas have been given focused attention: • Safe Motherhood • Family Planning • Adolescent Reproductive Health • STIs, HIV/AIDS • Harmful Practices, Reproductive rights and Gender Issues • Tumours of Reproductive Organs • Infertility and Sexual Dysfunction’ • Menopause and Andropause The contemporary issues under each of these component areas are to be addressed through five strategies of advocacy and social mobilization, promotion of healthy reproductive behaviour, equitable access to quality services, capacity building and research promotion. It is expected that this strategic framework and plan may be reviewed as necessary. With an estimated budget of N21,000,000.000 (Twenty one billion Naira), successful implementation of this strategic framework and plan should substantially contribute to achievement of the goals of the RH policy, the National Health Policy and the National Policy on Population for sustainable Development.
    English
    NIG_RHStrat.pdf
  • This report is a summary of the existing HIV/AIDS national policies and plans among countries in SADC. It is intended to provide a snapshot of the current status of policy formulation in the region and to suggest future steps to strengthen the policy environment for an effective response to the epidemic. Much of the information in this report is derived from national HIV/AIDS policies, strategic plans, HIV/AIDS policies for specific sectors and work plans.
    English
    SADC.pdf
  • A key condition of contraceptive security is a policy environment that enables forecasting, financing, procuring, and delivering contraceptives in a fair and equitable way to all women and men who need them. Contraceptive security exists in a country when all women and men who need and want contraceptives can obtain them. Policies can either inhibit or enhance achievement of contractive security. There is a dynamic relationship between the policy environment, the logistics and management functions of delivering contraceptive supplies and services, and contraceptive security. More emphasis is typically given to logistics and management issues than to policy issues in efforts to promote contraceptive security. However, the importance of a favorable policy environment as a lynchpin to contraceptive security is becoming increasingly apparent. This brief focuses on the key policy aspects of contraceptive security, and describes how policy interventions are essential to achieving contraceptive security.
    French
    PI_Frch.pdf
  • A key condition of contraceptive security is a policy environment that enables forecasting, financing, procuring, and delivering contraceptives in a fair and equitable way to all women and men who need them. Contraceptive security exists in a country when all women and men who need and want contraceptives can obtain them. Policies can either inhibit or enhance achievement of contractive security. There is a dynamic relationship between the policy environment, the logistics and management functions of delivering contraceptive supplies and services, and contraceptive security. More emphasis is typically given to logistics and management issues than to policy issues in efforts to promote contraceptive security. However, the importance of a favorable policy environment as a lynchpin to contraceptive security is becoming increasingly apparent. This brief focuses on the key policy aspects of contraceptive security, and describes how policy interventions are essential to achieving contraceptive security.
    Spanish
    PI_Sph.pdf
  • A key condition of contraceptive security is a policy environment that enables forecasting, financing, procuring, and delivering contraceptives in a fair and equitable way to all women and men who need them. Contraceptive security exists in a country when all women and men who need and want contraceptives can obtain them. Policies can either inhibit or enhance achievement of contractive security. There is a dynamic relationship between the policy environment, the logistics and management functions of delivering contraceptive supplies and services, and contraceptive security. More emphasis is typically given to logistics and management issues than to policy issues in efforts to promote contraceptive security. However, the importance of a favorable policy environment as a linchpin to contraceptive security is becoming increasingly apparent. This brief focuses on the key policy aspects of contraceptive security, and describes how policy interventions are essential to achieving contraceptive security.
    English
    PI_Eng.pdf
  • Following the Platform of Action set forth at the 1994 ICPD in Cairo, nearly all countries place at least some policy emphasis on preventing and treating reproductive health problems. However, the necessary resources, both domestic and international, continue to be scarce. Nowhere in the developing world do reproductive health programs reach all the persons who would benefit. This means that policymakers and program managers must set priorities. This policy brief describes how to set priorities, various models and techniques available to set priorities and how priority setting works in practice.
    Spanish
    PI2Spanish.pdf
  • Following the Platform of Action set forth at the 1994 ICPD in Cairo, nearly all countries place at least some policy emphasis on preventing and treating reproductive health problems. However, the necessary resources, both domestic and international, continue to be scarce. Nowhere in the developing world do reproductive health programs reach all the persons who would benefit. This means that policymakers and program managers must set priorities. This policy brief describes how to set priorities, various models and techniques available to set priorities and how priority setting works in practice.
    French
    PI2French.pdf
  • Following the Platform of Action set forth at the 1994 ICPD in Cairo, nearly all countries place at least some policy emphasis on preventing and treating reproductive health problems. However, the necessary resources, both domestic and international, continue to be scarce. Nowhere in the developing world do reproductive health programs reach all the persons who would benefit. This means that policymakers and program managers must set priorities. This policy brief describes various models and techniques available to set priorities and how priority setting works in practice.
    English
    PI2English.pdf
  • At the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo, more than 180 countries, including 38 sub–Saharan African countries, drafted and ratified the Programme of Action that includes support for the provision of sexual and reproductive health education, information, and services to adolescents. Addressing adolescent reproductive health (ARH) issues is particularly crucial in sub–Saharan Africa, where rates of maternal mortality, unsafe abortion, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), among youth are the highest in the world. Despite the obvious importance of the topic, ARH remains a controversial subject in the sub–Saharan region. Consequently, the exercise of caution in approaching the subject has led to a gap between the declarations of governmental officials and the actual design of reproductive health policies and programs geared toward youth. This paper provides a practical means of assessing reproductive health policies and programs geared toward adolescents. First, it presents major elements of ARH policy and program development and sets benchmarks against which future policy and program development can be measured. Second, the paper compares ARH policy and program development in three Francophone African countries: Burkina Faso, Cameroon, and Togo.
    English
    wps-08.pdf
  • Spanish
    op-7es.pdf
  • Many countries around the world have made great progress in improving reproductive health programs that now reflect the principles of the 1994 ICPD Programme of Action. Governments and donors have pursued two main routes to improving reproductive heath. First, they have enacted national policies and laws aimed at expanding services and raising the quality of available services. Second, they have implemented a wide range of service projects and demonstrations to show how services can be enhanced and client education improved. Too often, however, national policies and laws are not translated into systemwide programs and improved reproductive health services, especially for the poor. Because these doctrines are necessarily broad and encompassing, they neglect the structures and systems that serve as a bridge between national policies and local programs. Projects and demonstrations are often not replicable because they are not financially sustainable in the long run. More important, they generally do not systematically address the underlying policy constraints in the structures and systems that affect the service delivery environment. This paper focuses on the vast arena between national policies and the point of service delivery, which is the domain of operational policies. Operational policies are the rules, regulations, codes, guidelines, and administrative norms that governments use to translate national laws and policies into programs and services. While national policies provide necessary leadership and guidance, operational policies are the means for implementing those policies. In many cases, program deficiencies, such as a lack of trained service providers and other resources, can be traced to operational policies that are inadequate, inappropriate, or outdated. Poor operational policies result in wastage and inefficiency that pervades every clinic, health post, and hospital and adversely affects health personnel and every client. When drafted or modified appropriately, operational policies can help enhance the quality of reproductive health programs by making more efficient use of existing resources. The paper discusses the nature of operational policies, stresses the important role they play in the continuum from national decrees to local services, and provides a framework for operational policy reform.
    English
    op-7.pdf
  • French
    op-7fr.pdf
  • The transition to low fertility in much of the developing world is incomplete. To leave it half-finished or to slow its pace would have enormous demographic, programmatic, and foreign assistance implications. Despite considerable progress over the last 35 years, much remains to be done to complete the demographic transition. The world’s population has not stopped growing, and it is growing fastest in the poorest countries. To achieve sustainable development, strong measures by governments and donor organizations to promote fertility decline in developing countries—and to give individuals and couples the means to do so—need to continue for the foreseeable future. This paper reviews the status of the demographic transition worldwide, discusses factors associated with fertility decline, and highlights challenges associated with completing the transition in developing countries. It is intended to help policymakers both here and abroad to better understand the need for continued efforts to reduce fertility and population growth rates, even in the wake of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. A reduction in population growth to sustainable levels is not something that will just occur on its own. Completing the demographic transition requires addressing a number of challenges—and first and foremost is maintaining strong support for family planning programs from governments and donor organizations. Sustaining the demographic transition also requires focused attention on other proximate, or direct, determinants of fertility, such as increasing the age at marriage and reducing abortion. In addition, donors and governments have an important role to play in providing continued support for policies that indirectly affect fertility, such as promoting girls’ education and safe motherhood.
    English
    op-8.pdf
  • The prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) model is a computer program that evaluates the costs and benefits of intervention programs to reduce vertical transmission of HIV. As part of the intervention, the PMTCT model contains seven possible treatment choices: long course ZDV; short course ZDV following the Thailand, PETRA Arm A, and PETRA Arm B regimens; intrapartum and neonatal ZDV only; the HIVNET 012 regimen of single dose nevirapine to the mother and child; and universal nevirapine (nevirapine provided to all women and children at the time of delivery without checking for HIV status). In addition to these seven treatment options, the model also allows the percentage of women undergoing a Cesarean section, as well as the percentage of women that breastfeed their infants exclusively and with mixed breastfeeding and food supplements, to be specified. For each of the treatment options, PMTCT requires various data, including the costs of these interventions, and possible user fees to offset these costs. The vertical transmission rate of HIV is provided as a program default and also varies by treatment option, mode of delivery, and method of feeding.
    English
    PMTCTmnE.pdf
  • Le modèle de prévention de la transmission mère-enfant (PTME) est un programme informatique qui évalue les coûts et les avantages des programmes d'intervention destinés à réduire la transmission verticale du VIH. Dans le cadre de l'intervention, le modèle PTME contient sept options de traitement possible : ZDV de longue durée ; ZDV de courte durée selon le régime de Thaïlande, PETRA bras A, et PETRA bras B ; ZDV intrapartum et néonatal seulement ; formule HIVNET 012 de névirapine administrée en dose unique à la mère et à l'enfant ; et névirapine à couverture universelle administrée à toutes les mères et à tous les enfants à l'accouchement, sans vérification de leur statut sérologique. Outre ces sept options thérapeutiques, le modèle permet aussi de spécifier le pourcentage des femmes qui subissent une césarienne, ainsi que le pourcentage des femmes qui allaitent leur enfant exclusivement, ou conjointement avec une alimentation de substitution, selon le cas. Pour chacune de ces options, le modèle PTME doit disposer de différentes données, dont le coût de ces interventions et la participation éventuelle aux frais afin de compenser ces coûts. Le taux de transmission verticale du VIH est une valeur par défaut, fournie par le programme, qui varie en fonction de l'option thérapeutique considérée, du mode d'accouchement et de la méthode d'alimentation.
    French
    PMTCTmnF.pdf
  • Progress report on core package implementation.
    English
    CorePkg_July02.doc
  • The workshop, Pathways to Contraceptive Security, October 31–November 1, 2002, in Konya, Turkey, was organized by the Ministry of Health General Directorate of Maternal and Child Health and Family Planning (GD MCH/FP) and the POLICY Project. Many organizations and professionals contributed not only to this workshop but also to previous policy analysis and dialogue initiatives that have guided the National Family Planning Program in Turkey to achieve contraceptive self-reliance. The workshop embodied the strategic thinking that drives the National Family Planning Program and reflected the visions of the many policy champions, planners, and service providers who share responsibility for public health in Turkey.
    English
    Tur_PCS.pdf
  • Haiti's National Strategic Plan for the Control and Prevention of HIV/AIDS
    French
    Haiti_PSN.pdf
  • This advocacy workshop, held on May 6–9 and 13–14, 2002, was the second in a series of workshops to establish a network and train its members in the design and conduct of an advocacy campaign directed at one of the key policy issues from the Reproductive Health Action Plan (RHAP). Workshop facilitators were Susan Richiedei (POLICY/Washington), Anne Jorgensen (POLICY/Washington), Issa Almasarweh (POLICY/Jordan), and Basma Ishaqat (POLICY/Jordan).
    English
    Jor_05_02.pdf
  • The following report provides a summary analysis of the resources required to achieve the broad objectives outlined in Cambodia’s National Strategic Plan (NSP). This report outlines the costs associated with each strategic objective.
    English
    CAM_costing.pdf
  • The National Centre for Youth Development (NCYD) commissioned this situation assessment as part of its mandate to provide intersectoral coordination among various government and nongovernmental agencies to fulfil youth development objectives. Its purpose is to set a baseline for assessing the current level of youth development, highlight vital social and environmental factors which affect youths’ needs and abilities, track risk trends, and monitor positive advances in youth development. As a companion piece to this assessment, a Youth Programmatic Inventory gives the NCYD and other agencies an up-to-date accounting of active youth-serving organizations in Jamaica. It is hoped that these documents will help the NCYD and its partners to identify gaps in national coverage of youth development issues and priority areas of youth development. The situation assessment analyzes the status of youth in Jamaica using a set of roughly 70 quantitative indicators, drawn from the best sources available in Jamaica and elsewhere. For purposes of this document, youth are defined as between 10 and 24 years, unless otherwise indicated. The report presents data for the entire age range, or for subgroup of this range, where appropriate or where the data allows. Information is presented on trends and separate analyses are done by sex. Moreover, the analysis attempts to place findings on Jamaican youth within the national and regional context.
    English
    JAM_sitassess.pdf
  • This report describes the National Men's Imbizo on HIV/AIDS held October 4-5, 2002. The purpose of the imbozo was to mobilize and senstize men to become more active in HIV/AIDS activities, and to encourage networking between these men.
    English
    Mens_Imbizo.pdf
  • The following document was written by a team of leading economists and social scientists in response to the question, “What is the state of the art in the field of AIDS and economics”. This question was intentionally designed to provide authors with the ability to focus on the issues that they felt were most critical. As a result, each chapter represents a unique perspective on the question at hand.
    English
    SOTAecon.pdf
  • English
    Tanzania_National_Policy_on_HIV-AIDS.pdf
  • The Family Planning Program Effort Index (FPE) is a composite measure of family planning program efforts using the expert judgment of people who are very knowledgeable about the family planning program in a country or a region. It tests how program efforts interact with socioeconomic settings to increase contraceptive use and lower fertility rates. This is the fifth cycle to be conducted in Ethiopia. The FPE was previously conducted in 1982, 1989, 1994 and 1999. The study is based on an extensive questionnaire containing 125 items. Respondents are requested to address each one of these items. The items are coded and combined to give 30 program elements. These 30 program elements in turn are organized into four major categories: 1. Policy and stage setting activities. 2. Service and service related activities. 3. Evaluation and record keeping. 4. Availability of fertility control methods.
    English
    ETH_FPE_2002.pdf
  • Many people see an effective AIDS vaccine as the best solution to the HIV/AIDS pandemic. A considerable amount of funding and research effort is devoted to developing an effective vaccine. Ten years ago many scientists had hoped that a vaccine would be available by now. Most scientists are still optimistic that vaccines will be developed and many candidates are being tested. Programs to implement vaccination need to be developed in order to be ready when vaccines do become available. The nature of those programs will depend on the characteristics of each vaccine. How much does it cost? How effective is it? How long does protection last? The answers to these and other questions will help determine issues such as: Who should be vaccinated? Should regular re-vaccinations be scheduled? How much funding will be needed? Do vaccination campaigns need to be supported with safe sex messages? What will be the impact of the vaccine on the epidemic? This study uses two computer simulation models to investigate the effects of various vaccine characteristics and implementation strategies on the impact and costeffectiveness of vaccines in different contexts. A simulation model from the Imperial College is applied to data from rural Zimbabwe and the iwgAIDS model is applied to Kampala and Thailand. The models are used to investigate the effects of efficacy, duration, cost and type of protection on impact and cost-effectiveness. The models also illustrate the merits of targeting public subsidies to various population groups: all adults, teenagers, high- risk groups and reproductive age women. The impact of vaccines on the epidemic is compared with the impact of other prevention interventions, such as condom use and behavior change. Finally, the models are used to explore the extent to which behavioral reversals may erode the positive benefits of the vaccine. A highly effective, long- lasting, inexpensive vaccine would be ideal and could make a major contribution to controlling the HIV/AIDS pandemic. However, vaccines that do not attain this ideal can still be useful. A vaccine with 50 percent efficacy and 10 years duration supplied to 65 percent of all adults could reduce HIV incidence by 25 to 60 percent depending on the context and stage of the epidemic. Better efficacy and longer duration would provide even more impact. Programs focused on teenagers or high-risk populations have less overall impact but would provide significant benefits at much less cost than those reaching all adults. Behavioral reversals could erode much of the benefits of vaccination programs so it will be important to combine vaccination with continued messages about the importance of safe behaviors. The cost of the vaccines is not known at this time. At a cost of $10 or $20 per person vaccinated the cost per infection averted would be as low or lower than other prevention interventions. Higher costs for the vaccines and the need for many booster shots could reduce the cost-effectiveness significantly.
    English
    Vaccine_World_Bank_article.pdf
  • The purpose of this paper is to summarize POLICY’s assistance in Turkey featuring results and lessons learned to date. In addition to this introduction, the paper is organized in three parts representing technical components of POLICY’s work in Turkey: Contraceptive Self-reliance, National Strategies for Women’s Health and Family Planning, and Nongovernmental Organization (NGO) Strengthening and Advocacy. This paper reflects experiences through December 2001 and will be updated at the close of the project in December 2002.
    English
    TURfinal.pdf
  • Spanish
    Answering_the_Call_SPANISH_FINAL.pdf
  • Jamaican youth are key agents for social change, economic development, and technological innovation and are a major human resource for development. Youth ages 10 to 24 are also an important demographic group, comprising almost one-third of the population in the year 2000. To better understand and address the challenges youth in Jamaica face, the National Centre for Youth Development (NCYD) recently commissioned two studies, Situation Assessment Report, Youth in Jamaica, 2001 and Adolescent and Youth-Serving Organisations in Jamaica: Results from the Youth Programmatic Inventory (YPI) Survey. This document synthesizes information from the two studies to help in identifying important gaps and overlaps in the coverage of youth services, to inform the current review of the National Youth Policy, and to aid in the development of a strategic plan for implementing the national policy.
    English
    JAM_YJ.pdf