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Browse POLICY Project (1995-2006) Materials

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List entries are alphabetical by title and contain the title, abstract, language, and then the filename which is hyperlinked and will open in a new browser window. Many files are PDFs but some of the older ones are Word documents.

2004

  • Countries in the Asia-Pacific region have reached a crossroads in their HIV/AIDS response. The ability of countries in the region to maintain low national HIV prevalence levels will depend on their success in rapidly scaling up prevention, care, and treatment. The argument for responding quickly is compelling: the longer governments wait to adopt interventions, the higher the eventual cost in lives, productivity, and national as well as household medical expenses. The leadership and resources needed for rapid scale up requires strong political commitment and action from the countries’ highest leaders. “Act Now”—a joint publication of the Asia-Pacific Leadership Forum on HIV/AIDS and Development (APLF), UNAIDS, and the USAID-funded POLICY Project—encourages leaders from across the region to vigorously combat the epidemic before the situation worsens. Responses will have their greatest impact if countries act when national prevalence is still low.
    English
    ANE_ActNow.pdf
  • This report documents the significance and impact of the first three core packages implemented in Romania, Ukraine, and Nigeria. It also presents key highlights of results achieved through the packages.
    English
    Synthesis_core_packages(final).doc
  • Progress toward achieving the goals of the Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS and the Millennium Development Goals requires significant expandsion of HIV/AIDS programs to foster a supportive environment, to prevent new infections, to care for those already infected, and to mitigate the social and economic consequences of the epidemic. One measure of progress is the percentage of people living in low- and middle-income countries who have access to key prevention and care services. This report presents the results of an assessment of the coverage of several key health services in 2003. It updates and adds information to a similar report on coverage in 2001. This report includes results from 73 countries, including most low- and middle-income countries with more than 10,000 people living with HIV/AIDS in 2003. The information presented here relies on service statistics and expert assessment. These data focus on the quantity of services provided and do not address the quality of those services. The results should be interpreted with caution but are useful in indicating the progress made in the last two years toward future goals. The results of this analysis suggest that most people in low- and middle-income countries do not have access to many key prevention services. Utilization is very low for voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) with an estimated 6.1 million visits per year or 0.2 percent of adults 15–49. Approximately 10 million pregnant women are offered services to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT), about 8 percent of all pregnant women in these countries. About 70,000 women receive AZT or nevirapine to prevent HIV transmission to the newborn child, only 3 percent of all HIV-positive pregnant women.
    English
    CoverageSurveyReport.pdf
  • De Frente a la VIDA is a photojournal that features the stories of 10 people living with HIV/AIDS in Mexico. It was developed as part of POLICY's "Mo Kexteya" Project on stigma and discrimination in Mexico. Media reporting and images can profoundly influence public perceptions of HIV/AIDS. This photojournal aims to help change stereotypical portrayals of PLHAs by presenting positive images of PLHAs and their everyday experiences in a range of settings. The photojournal is being used in advocacy work and in journalist training sessions to help improve reporting on HIV/AIDS and people affected by the disease.
    Spanish
    MoKexteya.cfm
  • Guidelines and overview of forthcoming PLHA Handbook.
    French
    PLHA_CCMfr.pdf
  • This study was prepared at the request of the POLICY Project to analyze the existing and potential procurement mechanisms in the Ministry of Health (MOH), Royal Medical Services (RMS), UN Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA), Jordan University Hospital (JUH), and Jordan Association for Family Planning and Protection (JAFPP), which are the main providers of contraceptives obtained through the USAID grant to the MOH in Jordan.
    English
    Jor_procurement.pdf
  • This paper presents a detailed market segmentation analysis of the family planning sector in Jordan. Section 2 provides an overview of the provider market. Section 3 analyzes the consumer market in terms of consumer characteristics, needs, method use, and sources of contraceptives. Section 4 studies profiles of the public-, NGO-, and private-sector clients. Section 5 presents a comparative analysis of the 1997 and 2002 markets. Section 6 assesses the current targeting behavior in the public sector. Section 7 segments the current market to establish a better match between current/potential users and the appropriate source of FP methods and services. Section 8 projects the potential demand across SLI quintiles and the potential market for the public, NGO, and commercial sectors; while Section 9 presents policy options for achieving contraceptive security based on market segmentation results.
    English
    JOR_MS.pdf
  • Summary of USAID/China Program Launch in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China August 23 –25, 2004
    English
    China_Guangxi-Launch.pdf
  • Guidelines and overview of forthcoming PLHA Handbook in Vietnamese
    Other
    PLHA_CCMvt.pdf
  • Guidelines and overview of forthcoming PLHA Handbook.
    English
    PLHA_CCM.pdf
  • Guidelines and overview of forthcoming PLHA Handbook.
    Russian
    PLHA_CCMru.pdf
  • Spanish
    MEX_GenHIV_Agenda.pdf
  • The National AIDS Control Council has realized the need to mainstream gender issues in programmes/projects since mainstreaming gender issues in the planning, implementation and evaluation of programmes strengthens the effectiveness of the response to HIV and AIDS. The overall goal of this toolkit is to sensitise policy and senior level decision makers on key HIV, AIDS, and Gender issues. It offers guidelines to use when planning and formulating gender responsive policies and programmes relating to HIV and AIDS.
    English
    KEN_GenderToolkit.pdf
  • A research report assessing the current situation for people living with HIV/AIDS in Nepal. The report addresses discrimination and stigma through legal reform.
    English
    NEP_LegAudit.pdf
  • Government agencies are the largest employers in many countries, but too little attention has been given to strengthening HIV/AIDS prevention, care, and treatment programs for government employees and their families. This book offers practical guidance on creating or expanding HIV/AIDS workplace programs for civil services.
    English
    WW_PubSectGuide.pdf
  • This report is designed as an advocacy tool to assist policymakers and other stakeholders in stimulating dialogue about sustainable, contextually appropriate responses to HIV/AIDS in Ghana. The report seeks to provide an overview of the current HIV/AIDS situation in Ghana; project the future direction of the epidemic using the best available data; highlight some of the key social and economic impacts of the pandemic; and discuss strategies that will be needed to reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS, improve care and support, and mitigate associated impacts.
    English
    HIVAIDS_IN_GHANA_CURRENT SITUATION.pdf
  • In many countries around the world, the majority of new infections are occurring in women, particularly adolescents and young adults. Developing appropriate responses to the gender issues that continue to make both women and men vulnerable to HIV is critical to all efforts to prevent HIV transmission, improve care and support for PLWHA and their families, and mitigate the impacts of the HIV/AIDS pandemic. This publication provides program planners with practical, field-based insights on integrating gender into HIV/AIDS programs. The publication's guidelines, examples of promising responses, and analysis of gaps emerged from in-depth interviews with nearly 60 program officers from USAID and its partners during 2001 and 2002. The Gender and HIV/AIDS Task Force of the Interagency Gender Working Group supplemented insights gained from these interviews with other literature reviews to produce this synthesis document.
    English
    HowToIntegrGendrHIV.pdf
  • This report assesses how the Greater Involvement of People Living with HIV/AIDS (GIPA) Principle is being implemented in the ANE region. Five USAID Missions and 12 implementing agencies (IAs) in the region participated in the assessment, which was undertaken in May and June 2003 in Cambodia, India, Nepal, Philippines, and Viet Nam. The purpose of the assessment was to ascertain how Missions, IAs, and NGOs are incorporating GIPA principles into their organizations and into the programmatic work they support and implement. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 23 respondents from Missions, IAs, and NGOs.
    English
    ANE_GIPA.pdf
  • A quarterly newsletter on population issues in Kenya, produced by the National Council for Population and Development (NCPD) and the POLICY Project. Theme: Kenya Demographic and Health Survey 2003
    English
    KEN_KenPop_1.1.pdf
  • A quarterly newsletter on population issues in Kenya, produced by the National Council for Population and Development (NCPD) and the POLICY Project. Theme: Improving the Quality of our Population: ICPD+10: Lessons Learnt
    English
    KEN_Kenpop_1.2.pdf
  • Reproductive Health Promotion Working Group advocacy material
    English
    CAM_MaleInvolveEng.pdf
  • Russian
    MNPI_AltaiKra.pdf
  • Worldwide, over 500,000 women and girls die of complications related to pregnancy and childbirth each year. The tragedy - and opportunity - is that most of these deaths can be prevented with cost-effective health care services. POLICY's MNPI series provides country-specific data on maternal and neonatal health programs in more than 30 developing countries. Based on a study conducted by the Futures Group and funded through the MEASURE Evaluation Project, the MNPI is a tool that can be used to: Assess current health care services; Identify program strengths and weaknesses; Plan strategies to address deficiencies; Encourage political and popular support for appropriate action; and Track progress over time.
    Russian
    MNPI_Khabarovsk.pdf
  • Worldwide, over 500,000 women and girls die of complications related to pregnancy and childbirth each year. The tragedy - and opportunity - is that most of these deaths can be prevented with cost-effective health care services. POLICY's MNPI series provides country-specific data on maternal and neonatal health programs in more than 30 developing countries. Based on a study conducted by the Futures Group and funded through the MEASURE Evaluation Project, the MNPI is a tool that can be used to: Assess current health care services; Identify program strengths and weaknesses; Plan strategies to address deficiencies; Encourage political and popular support for appropriate action; and Track progress over time.
    Russian
    MNPI_Perm.pdf
  • Worldwide, over 500,000 women and girls die of complications related to pregnancy and childbirth each year. The tragedy - and opportunity - is that most of these deaths can be prevented with cost-effective health care services. POLICY's MNPI series provides country-specific data on maternal and neonatal health programs in more than 30 developing countries. Based on a study conducted by the Futures Group and funded through the MEASURE Evaluation Project, the MNPI is a tool that can be used to: Assess current health care services; Identify program strengths and weaknesses; Plan strategies to address deficiencies; Encourage political and popular support for appropriate action; and Track progress over time.
    Russian
    MNPI_Tomsk.pdf
  • Worldwide, over 500,000 women and girls die of complications related to pregnancy and childbirth each year. The tragedy - and opportunity - is that most of these deaths can be prevented with cost-effective health care services. POLICY's MNPI series provides country-specific data on maternal and neonatal health programs in more than 30 developing countries. Based on a study conducted by the Futures Group and funded through the MEASURE Evaluation Project, the MNPI is a tool that can be used to: Assess current health care services; Identify program strengths and weaknesses; Plan strategies to address deficiencies; Encourage political and popular support for appropriate action; and Track progress over time.
    Russian
    MNPI_Tver.pdf
  • Worldwide, over 500,000 women and girls die of complications related to pregnancy and childbirth each year. The tragedy - and opportunity - is that most of these deaths can be prevented with cost-effective health care services. POLICY's MNPI series provides country-specific data on maternal and neonatal health programs in more than 30 developing countries. Based on a study conducted by the Futures Group and funded through the MEASURE Evaluation Project, the MNPI is a tool that can be used to: Assess current health care services; Identify program strengths and weaknesses; Plan strategies to address deficiencies; Encourage political and popular support for appropriate action; and Track progress over time.
    Russian
    MNPI_Veronezh.pdf
  • The support of the media is considered to be essential in strengthening the response to HIV/AIDS and addressing the human development challenges posed by the epidemic. As an influential advocate of social change, the media needs to play a positive role in preventing the spread of HIV/AIDS and in reducing its impact. In fact, it is the media’s responsibility to inform, educate, and lead. But the question is, has it been able to play this role effectively? This review analyzes the role of the media and the reporting trends on HIV/AIDS issues in Nepal in order to better understand how the media reports in order to foster effective partnership with it. This report will help in assessing the general trend of coverage on HIV/AIDS issues. It is expected to help the government and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) working in the area of HIV/AIDS to devise more influential advocacy strategies. It is also expected to help in deciding on the choice of media for dissemination of information and messages on HIV/AIDS.
    English
    NEP_MediaReview_HIV.pdf
  • English
    CAM_MSM.pdf
  • This report focuses on the role of midwives in the prevention, detection, and treatment of HIV/AIDS and STIs and is based on a study in a rural community in Mexico. The document provides recommendations for improving the relationship between midwives and public health programs to better equip midwives to prevent, detect, and treat STIs and HIV/AIDS.
    English
    MEX_Midwives_STI.pdf
  • HIV/AIDS has compelled individuals and societies to re-evaluate their attitudes, prejudices and behaviours underscoring the need for an enlightened public policy that promotes support and care rather than coercion, tolerance and compassion rather than discrimination, protection of human rights and dignity rather than stigmatisation and exclusion. It is hoped that this policy document, directed to all cooperating partners, including Ministries, Departments and Agencies (MDAs), the private sector, PLWHA, NGOs, CBOs, and civil society organisations at large, religious bodies, institutions of learning and development partners provides such a positive response. The Government of Ghana expects all sectors to be involved in the implementation of programmes.
    English
    GHA_AIDS_Policy.pdf
  • Reproductive Tract Infections (RTIs) are being increasingly recognised as a global health problem with serious impacts on individual women and men, their families and communities. RTIs, generally seen as a ‘silent’ epidemic can have severe consequences including infertility, ectopic pregnancy, chronic pelvic pain, miscarriage, neonatal blindness, increased risk of HIV infection and even death. But the consequences of RTIs extend beyond the realms of health. The morbidity associated with RTIs affect economic productivity and the quality of life of many individual men, women and ultimately of whole communities. The Health Sector of the Government of Ghana in collaboration with WHO and other Partners initiated a process in 2000 with the aim of assisting the Sector programme managers in prioritising interventions for addressing and repositioning RTIs.
    English
    GHA_RTIGuide.pdf
  • This paper documents the achievements of the Edo State YAARH core package, which was implemented over the period from August 2001 through March 2004. Section II presents the context, policy issues, and stakeholders affecting the successful implementation of YAARH policies and programs in Edo State. Sections III and IV focus on the interventions and results achieved under the package, and Section V discusses the legacy of the project. In summary, this paper documents a pilot effort to facilitate a participatory networking, strategic planning, capacity building and advocacy process, resulting in a strengthened role for civil society in policy processes; the development, adoption, and funding of an evidence-based state-level YAARH strategy; and an improved enabling environment for the implementation of national YAARH policies and strategies at the state level.
    English
    Nigeria_CP_final_report.pdf
  • Although contraceptive use has risen impressively in many countries over the last few decades, there have been occasional flat periods that have raised serious concerns about the effectiveness of the national family planning programs involved. Of special concern are a few instances in the Asia and Near East region, where interruptions of an established upward trend in contraceptive use have raised troubling policy and program questions for both governments and international donor agencies. Issues exist concerning the actual frequency of plateaus in contraceptive increase, why they occur, why most are so brief, and what actions should be taken when they occur. The analysis reported here uses a large set of national surveys to explore especially the first of those questions and to offer suggestions as to the other three.
    English
    wps-10.pdf
  • The role of policy in improving program outcomes in the family planning/reproductive health (FP/RH), safe motherhood, and HIV/AIDS fields has been increasingly recognized. Despite this increased recognition, “policy” is often seen as a black box. Existing frameworks or models focus on some aspects of policy—the stages of policy development, decision makers and stakeholder institutions, the intent and content of a policy, or its implementation—yet none captures all policy components. This paper provides a practical framework to analyze components of family planning, reproductive health, maternal health, and HIV/AIDS policies. The Policy Circle framework is presented and the six “Ps” of policy are described: Problem, People/Places, Process, Price Tag, Paper, and Programs/Performance. Each component of the Policy Circle can be analyzed using a variety of tools. The Policy Circle is not intended to be linear or even circular, but places the problem or issue to be solved at the center. The six policy “Ps” of the Policy Circle operate under the broader contextual forces of politics, society, and economics. The Policy Circle has wide applicability. The proposed framework can be used to analyze different policy levels, including national and local policies and sectoral and operational policies. In the case of FP/RH, the Policy Circle can be viewed through different lenses specific to three overarching concerns: youth, gender, and human rights. Each of the six “Ps” points to important aspects of policy that need to be considered to ensure comprehensive policy analysis of the issue or area of concern to which the Policy Circle is applied. Visit the Policy Circle online - click here
    English
    wps-11.pdf
  • Nigeria is in the early stages of carrying out its new national policy on sexuality and reproductive health education. Worldwide, school-based programs are an important element of efforts to improve the reproductive health of young people. This paper reviews the international experience and its implications for Nigeria.
    English
    wps-12.pdf
  • In 1994, after three decades of donor support to Turkey’s national family program, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) announced its intention to phase out assistance. On the eve of donor phaseout, Turkey’s public sector program was serving nearly 60 percent of the market for modern family planning methods, including many nonpoor clients. During the transition period, the Ministry of Health was challenged not only to obtain new resources to replace donated contraceptive commodities but also to assume new technical responsibilities for the program. The story of how the ministry succeeded is often told in technical terms (e.g., number of procurements, budget trends, pilot project design, etc.). An equally important part of the story is the political and institutional context within which success was achieved. Examining how the MCH-FP Directorate overcame challenges to put in place a sustainable strategy for the public sector family planning program reveals the political dimensions of the process. Using a political economy framework, this paper examines the processes that led to implementation two central components of Turkey’s national self-reliance strategy: obtaining annual budget allocations for contraceptives and targeting free services to the poor. The framework used here to analyze the process of formulating and adopting Turkey’s contraceptive self-reliance strategy has five components: stakeholders’ characteristics, institutional characteristics, contextual conditions, process characteristics, and reform characteristics.
    English
    WPS13.pdf
  • The Greater Involvement of People Living with HIV/AIDS (GIPA) principle has become the most enduring legacy of the Paris Declaration. GIPA has been incorporated into national and international program and policy responses and taken up as a model of best practice in the response to HIV/AIDS. Since the Paris Summit in December 1994, GIPA has been endorsed in numerous international statements, most recently by the United Nations General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) on HIV/AIDS in its Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS (United Nations, 2001). Ten years after the Paris Summit, the issue of meaningful involvement of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHAs) in policy development remains largely unexplored. A number of questions linger: Has GIPA become a “bandwagon” policy slogan without significant meaning? What are the benefits of adhering to the GIPA principle and does this lead to better policies? How do PLHAs and others measure and determine progress? To answer these questions, the POLICY Project conducted a study of PLHA involvement in five countries. This report seeks to address how PLHAs are meaningfully involved in policy formulation by exploring key issues related to the GIPA principle and its effects.
    English
    WPS14.pdf
  • The research reported here concerns the Maternal and Neonatal Program Effort Index (MNPI), a standardized assessment instrument applied in both 1999 and 2002. Previous reports cover the detailed methodology and the results from the 1999 study, as well as the relation of the MNPI ratings to maternal mortality ratios (Ross, Campbell, and Bulatao, 2001; Bulatao and Ross, 2002; Bulatao and Ross, 2003a). The MNPI instrument is designed to measure the strength and character of government programs to improve maternal health. It contains items for the most proximate determinants of maternal survival, including those related to emergency obstetric and abortion cases, as well as the less proximate determinants of the policies and institutional arrangements necessary to build treatment capacities. Capturing these program features can document the low effort levels that now exist and create a baseline against which to trace future improvements. The overall purpose is to measure program inputs and strength of effort for the reduction of maternal mortality and morbidity and closely related neonatal items.
    English
    WPS15.pdf
  • This four-page policy brief describes efforts in Jamaica to strengthen multisectoral coordination on youth issues.
    English
    Jam_YRH.pdf
  • This four-page policy brief describes advocacy efforts that led to formulation of a state-level strategic plan for youth RH issues in Edo State, Nigeria.
    English
    Nig_YRH.pdf
  • Private sector involvement is crucial not only in helping respond to growing market demand but also in expanding consumer choices and ensuring equity in the contraceptive market. Evidence from many countries shows that the nonpoor benefit disproportionately from free and subsidized public sector services and commodities (Winfrey et al., 2000). A recent analysis of 10 donor-dependent countries reveals that 45 percent of pills and 56 percent of condoms supplied, respectively, by the public sector and social marketing initiatives went to those who could otherwise afford to pay for them (Sine, 2002). Redirecting wealthier/middle-income clients to the private sector will free up scarce donor and public resources for those most vulnerable and in need. A recent market segmentation study in the Philippines shows that shifting middle- and high-income users of government services to the private sector would reduce the burden on the public sector by more than 40 percent (Alano et al., 2002). It is important to recognize that more than one-third of all family planning users in the developing world already obtain contraceptives from the private sector (Rosen and Conly, 1999). In countries such as Cameroon, Colombia, the Dominican Republic, Ghana, and Jordan, more than 60 percent of users obtain their contraceptives from private rather than public sources (Ross et al., 1999). Given that the private sector in many countries is already a major player in the contraceptive market, any feasible contraceptive security plan needs to take into consideration the private sector’s current and potential role. This policy brief provides an overview of processes, strategies, and tools that developing countries can adopt to foster complementary public/private sector roles that enhance the private sector’s contribution to contraceptive security. Specifically, the brief examines the roles of the public and private sectors in the provision of contraceptives and condoms; and describes strategies/mechanisms used at both the policy and operational levels to mobilize the private sector.
    English
    PF4_Eng.pdf
  • Private sector involvement is critical not only in helping respond to growing market demand but also in expanding consumer choices and ensuring equity in the contraceptive market. Evidence from many countries shows that the nonpoor benefit disproportionately from free and subsidized public sector services and commodities (Winfrey et al., 2000). A recent analysis of 10 donor-dependent countries reveals that 45 percent of pills and 56 percent of condoms supplied, respectively, by the public sector and social marketing initiatives went to those who could otherwise afford to pay for them (Sine, 2002). Redirecting wealthier/middle-income clients to the private sector will free up scarce donor and public resources for those most vulnerable and in need. A recent market segmentation study in the Philippines shows that shifting middle- and high-income users of government services to the private sector would reduce the burden on the public sector by more than 40 percent (Alano et al., 2002). It is important to recognize that more than one-third of all family planning users in the developing world already obtain contraceptives from the private sector (Rosen and Conly, 1999). In countries such as Cameroon, Colombia, the Dominican Republic, Ghana, and Jordan, more than 60 percent of users obtain their contraceptives from private rather than public sources (Ross et al., 1999). Given that the private sector in many countries is already a major player in the contraceptive market, any feasible contraceptive security plan needs to take into consideration the private sector’s current and potential role. This policy brief provides an overview of processes, strategies, and tools that developing countries can adopt to foster complementary public/private sector roles that enhance the private sector’s contribution to contraceptive security. Specifically, the brief examines the roles of the public and private sectors in the provision of contraceptives and condoms; and describes strategies/mechanisms used at both the policy and operational levels to mobilize the private sector.
    Spanish
    PF4_Sp.pdf
  • Private sector involvement is critical not only in helping respond to growing market demand but also in expanding consumer choices and ensuring equity in the contraceptive market. Evidence from many countries shows that the nonpoor benefit disproportionately from free and subsidized public sector services and commodities (Winfrey et al., 2000). A recent analysis of 10 donor-dependent countries reveals that 45 percent of pills and 56 percent of condoms supplied, respectively, by the public sector and social marketing initiatives went to those who could otherwise afford to pay for them (Sine, 2002). Redirecting wealthier/middle-income clients to the private sector will free up scarce donor and public resources for those most vulnerable and in need. A recent market segmentation study in the Philippines shows that shifting middle- and high-income users of government services to the private sector would reduce the burden on the public sector by more than 40 percent (Alano et al., 2002). It is important to recognize that more than one-third of all family planning users in the developing world already obtain contraceptives from the private sector (Rosen and Conly, 1999). In countries such as Cameroon, Colombia, the Dominican Republic, Ghana, and Jordan, more than 60 percent of users obtain their contraceptives from private rather than public sources (Ross et al., 1999). Given that the private sector in many countries is already a major player in the contraceptive market, any feasible contraceptive security plan needs to take into consideration the private sector’s current and potential role. This policy brief provides an overview of processes, strategies, and tools that developing countries can adopt to foster complementary public/private sector roles that enhance the private sector’s contribution to contraceptive security. Specifically, the brief examines the roles of the public and private sectors in the provision of contraceptives and condoms; and describes strategies/mechanisms used at both the policy and operational levels to mobilize the private sector.
    French
    PF4_Fr.pdf
  • The POLICY Project conducted assessments of adolescent and youth reproductive health in 13 countries in the Asia and Near East (ANE) region that represent diverse population sizes and geographic, cultural, and socioeconomic settings. The countries include Egypt, Jordan, Morocco, and Yemen in the Near East; Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka in South Asia; and Cambodia, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam in Southeast Asia. In 2000, the 13 countries accounted for a total of 354 million young people ages 15 to 24 years. The purpose of the assessments was to highlight the reproductive health status of adolescents and youth in each country within the context of the lives of young males and females.
    English
    op-09.pdf
  • Despite some attempts to integrate family planning with sexually transmitted infection (STI) and HIV/AIDS services, policies and programs continue to treat them as unrelated areas of intervention. Furthermore, international attention to the HIV/AIDS pandemic has overshadowed attention to family planning, particularly in Africa where the HIV/AIDS epidemic is most acute. Yet family planning is closely related to two components of HIV/AIDS services: prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) and voluntary counseling and testing (VCT). Is there a role for family planning in the context of HIV/AIDS programs? This paper analyzes how international guidelines, national HIV/AIDS policies and PMTCT and VCT policies have addressed family planning in 16 high-HIV prevalence countries. It also describes major gaps in the various countries’ policy environment.
    English
    wps-09.pdf
  • Guidelines and overview of forthcoming PLHA Handbook.
    Spanish
    PLHA_CCMsp.pdf
  • The POLICY Project, in collaboration with the Ministry of Social Affairs, Veterans, and Youth Rehabilitation, and CARE Cambodia, facilitated a two-day workshop on August 23 and 24th, 2004, titled 'Orphans and Vulnerable Children Dialogue Workshop'. Participants included a multi-sector group of representatives from government ministries, NGOs, Civil Society groups, donors, Bhuddist pagodas, people living with HIV/AIDS, and children who have been orphaned due to HIV/AIDS. The purpose of the workshop was to disseminate findings of two research studies that have been conducted by the POLICY Project and CARE, Cambodia, in urban and rural areas of Cambodia; to make program and policy recomendations for improving Cambodia's response to the OVC crisis; and to coordinate with stakeholders from all sectors in order to move forward to address OVC issues at the program and policy levels. This report provided a summary of the activities and results of the workshop. (Hard copy available in English and Khmer)
    English
    CAM_OVC_PolicyDialogue.pdf
  • Proceedings from the workshop 'Prevention of HIV/AIDS in Uttar Pradesh', January 29-31, 2004. The workshop brought together policy makers, bureaucrats, program managers, people living with AIDS, academicions and activitist to discuss and debate the present state of affairs and discuss means of strengthening prevention and control of HIV/AIDS in the state. 25 papers were presented by experts on different themes and best practices.
    English
    IND_PrevHIV_UP.ps.pdf
  • This study documents experiences and analyzes the underlying causes and factors related to availability, access, effectiveness, and gaps in health services for women living with HIV or AIDS. The report also provides recommendations for formulating a sensitive and appropriate response to the healthcare needs of women living with HIV/AIDS and improving HIV prevention.
    English
    MEX_WomenLWHA.pdf
  • Kenya’s family planning (FP) success has been overshadowed by the HIV/AIDS epidemic, which was declared a national crisis in 1999. Data from the 2003 Demographic and Health Survey in Kenya (KDHS) provide a cautionary tale of the unintended outcomes associated with the shift in attention of programs and resources from family planning primarily to HIV/AIDS. From a steady rise in contraceptive prevalence from 27 percent in 1989 to 39 percent in 1998, contraceptive prevalence stalled and remained at 39 percent in 2003. Yet, the surveys have consistently shown that many women report wanting to delay or limit future births but are not using any FP method. In the context of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, is there still a need for family planning? As government and donor resources in Africa shift increasingly to support of AIDS programs, the answer to this question is crucial. The purpose of this study was to explore how family planning is being implemented in Kenya in the context of high HIV prevalence. A similar study was conducted in Zambia.
    English
    Ken_FGD.pdf
  • In the context of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, is there still a need for family planning? As government and donor resources in Africa shift increasingly to support AIDS programs, the answer to this question is crucial. The objective of this study was to document the status and trends in Zambia’s family planning (FP) program in the context of high prevalence of HIV/AIDS. A similar study was conducted in Kenya. This qualitative research study used focus group discussions (FGDs) to examine the views of 215 service providers, HIV-positive (HIV+) women, and FP/antenatal care (ANC) clients on the need for family planning within the context of the HIV epidemic. The study was conducted in Lusaka, Livingstone, Kitwe, and Kabwe in 2003.
    English
    Zam_FGD.pdf
  • Contraceptive security, defined as a condition when all women and men who need and want contraceptives can obtain them (Sine and Sharma, 2002), is a new concept in Romania. Nonetheless, in August 2000, the government approved—for the first time ever—policies that included a budget line item for contraceptives and the provision of free commodities to vulnerable population sectors. The August 2000 policies were broad, and implementation problems soon emerged. In response, the USAID-funded POLICY Project (POLICY) provided a focused package of technical assistance (TA) that lasted from March 2001 to December 2002 to help the government of Romania (GOR) to target those most in need and improve family planning equity. POLICY assistance contributed to four GOR policy decisions that occurred between 2001 and 2003: 1. Increased Ministry of Health and Family (MOHF) resources for free contraceptives in 2001 and 2002 2. Generic contraceptive formularies covered by social health insurance (2002) 3. Norms for government funding of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) involved in public health programs, including providing free contraceptives to the poor (approved in 2003) 4. Self-certification of poverty status as documentary proof for access to free contraceptives (2003)
    English
    Romania_CP_(final).doc
  • The success of family planning programs, continued growth in the number of women of reproductive age, and the growing response to curb the HIV/AIDS pandemic are increasing demand for contraceptives, including condoms, worldwide. Countries are faced with the challenge of ensuring that this demand can be sustainably met. Financing is not keeping pace, while the problem is also often one of disruptions and vulnerabilities in the systems that need to work well, and work together, to ensure that supplies are available to people. SPARHCS - The Strategic Pathway to Reproductive Health Commodity Security - is a tool to help countries develop and implement strategies to secure essential supplies for family planning and reproductive health programs. SPARHCS is meant to bring together a wide range of stakeholders to initiate at the country level concerted efforts toward the goal of reproductive health commodity security. It is not a roadmap, or a fixed process. SPARHCS can be customized to a country’s specific needs and resources. It can be used for contraceptives alone, for contraceptives and condoms for HIV/STI prevention, or for a still broader set of reproductive health supplies. (French)
    French
    SPARHCS_fre.pdf
  • The success of family planning programs, continued growth in the number of women of reproductive age, and the growing response to curb the HIV/AIDS pandemic are increasing demand for contraceptives, including condoms, worldwide. Countries are faced with the challenge of ensuring that this demand can be sustainably met. Financing is not keeping pace, while the problem is also often one of disruptions and vulnerabilities in the systems that need to work well, and work together, to ensure that supplies are available to people. SPARHCS - The Strategic Pathway to Reproductive Health Commodity Security - is a tool to help countries develop and implement strategies to secure essential supplies for family planning and reproductive health programs. SPARHCS is meant to bring together a wide range of stakeholders to initiate at the country level concerted efforts toward the goal of reproductive health commodity security. It is not a roadmap, or a fixed process. SPARHCS can be customized to a country’s specific needs and resources. It can be used for contraceptives alone, for contraceptives and condoms for HIV/STI prevention, or for a still broader set of reproductive health supplies.
    English
    SPARHCS.pdf
  • The success of family planning programs, continued growth in the number of women of reproductive age, and the growing response to curb the HIV/AIDS pandemic are increasing demand for contraceptives, including condoms, worldwide. Countries are faced with the challenge of ensuring that this demand can be sustainably met. Financing is not keeping pace, while the problem is also often one of disruptions and vulnerabilities in the systems that need to work well, and work together, to ensure that supplies are available to people. SPARHCS - The Strategic Pathway to Reproductive Health Commodity Security - is a tool to help countries develop and implement strategies to secure essential supplies for family planning and reproductive health programs. SPARHCS is meant to bring together a wide range of stakeholders to initiate at the country level concerted efforts toward the goal of reproductive health commodity security. It is not a roadmap, or a fixed process. SPARHCS can be customized to a country’s specific needs and resources. It can be used for contraceptives alone, for contraceptives and condoms for HIV/STI prevention, or for a still broader set of reproductive health supplies. (Spanish)
    Spanish
    SPARHCS_spa.pdf
  • Los módulos contenidos aquí proporciona una lista de intervenciones en salud reproductiva e investigación de soporteque documentan la eficacia de las mismas. Esta guía será de utilidad para quienes desarrollen lineamientos para las mejores prácticas. Aquí se presenta una síntesis de las investigaciones publicadas en trabajos de revisión de pares con datos claros y transparentes sobre la efectividad de distintas intervenciones en salud reproductiva, iniciativas políticas y de programas que pueden ser implementados con el fin de mejorar la planificación familiar/salud reproductiva y reducir las ITS/VIH/SIDA en países en desarrollo, en vez de dosificar niveles de medicamentos específicos. La información biomédica ha sido incluida toda vez que ésta haya sido relevante para las consideraciones programáticas.
    Spanish
    WhatWorksSpan.pdf
  • Promising practice of stigma-mitigation efforts from across South Africa: Reflections from the faith-based organizations, HIV/AIDS managers in the workplace, and people living with HIV/AIDS who interact with the media. This document is part of the Siyam'kela project, which has been designed to explore HIV/AIDS stigma, an aspect of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, which is having a profouncly negative effect on the response to people living with, and or affected by HIV/AIDS. This document focuses on promising practices which reduce stigma and discrimination.
    English
    SAF_Siyamkela_PromisePractice.pdf
  • This four-page brochure introduces the use of the Spectrum Suite of Models to transform data into policy dialogue by projecting the need for family planning/reproductive health, maternal health, and HIV/AIDS services and the consequences of not addressing needs in these areas. It presents examples of successful Spectrum training in institutional settings in three countries and shows how using the Spectrum models can lead to policy change.
    English
    spectrumbulletin.pdf
  • To begin to protect young men and young women from this heightened risk of HIV/AIDS, it is important that policymakers and program managers gain a better understanding of transactional sex among youth. Policymakers and program managers need answers to questions such as: Are youth at higher risk of engaging in transactional sex than other groups? What factors influence youth to engage in transactional sex? And, what subgroups of youth are particularly vulnerable to engaging in transactional sex? This study seeks to answer these questions by exploring whether adolescent boys and girls are at higher risk for engaging in transactional sex than older men and women by analyzing data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) from 12 sub-Saharan African countries including Benin, Burkina Faso, Central African Republic (CAR), Chad, Guinea, Kenya, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Togo, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. We also examine the relationship between young men and young women’s individual socio-demographic characteristics and the probability that they will engage in the exchange of sex for money.
    English
    Trans_Sex.pdf
  • The HIV and AIDS epidemic is a health and development crisis throughout much of sub-Saharan Africa, including Zimbabwe. Analysis of the most recent sources of information indicated that 24.6 percent of the entire adult population ages 15-49 is currently infected, making Zimbabwe one of the most seriously affected countries in the entire world. This document was prepared under the sponsorship of the Ministry of Health and Child Welfare and National AIDS Council. It is intended to provide information about the HIV and AIDS epidemic in Zimbabwe as one way to contribute to improved multi-sectoral planning and policy dialogue.
    English
    ZIM_AIM.pdf
  • The greater involvement of people living with HIV/AIDS (GIPA) is being promoted as a cornerstone of HIV/AIDS prevention and care and support. The concept of GIPA emerged as a formal statement at the Paris Summit on AIDS in 1994. However, the concept of PLHA involvement expressed by GIPA has been a feature of community responses to HIV/AIDS from very early in the epidemic. This research analyzes the perceptions of GIPA in Nepal from the perspective of policymakers, international organizations, NGOs, and people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHAs).
    English
    NEP_HeartofMatter.pdf
  • Cambodia is among the countries most severely affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Asia. In 2003, an estimated 123,100 adults in Cambodia were living with HIV/AIDS and 60,000 children were affected by HIV/AIDS. In responding to the epidemic, donors, policymakers, and program planners have had little country-specific information regarding the impact of HIV/AIDS and the effectiveness of interventions, impeding their ability to make decisions regarding resource allocation and program design. In response to this lack of data, the Royal Government of Cambodia (RGC) and the POLICY Project carried out this study, which served a dual purpose: (1) to identify the social and economic impact that HIV/AIDS is having on children, adolescents, and their guardians, and (2) to help policymakers, donors, and development partners identify policies and programs that would likely be effective in mitigating the impact of HIV/AIDS. This study demonstrates that it is imperative that policymakers, program managers, donors, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), PLHAs, and orphans and vulnerable children work together to identify a means of providing services that target the most vulnerable children while addressing the unique needs of every child. The recommendations set forth in this study are based on the study findings, as well as findings from a workshop that was held in August 2004.
    English
    CAM_OVC_En.pdf
  • Cambodia is among the countries most severely affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Asia. In 2003, an estimated 123,100 adults in Cambodia were living with HIV/AIDS and 60,000 children were affected by HIV/AIDS. In responding to the epidemic, donors, policymakers, and program planners have had little country-specific information regarding the impact of HIV/AIDS and the effectiveness of interventions, impeding their ability to make decisions regarding resource allocation and program design. In response to this lack of data, the Royal Government of Cambodia (RGC) and the POLICY Project carried out this study, which served a dual purpose: (1) to identify the social and economic impact that HIV/AIDS is having on children, adolescents, and their guardians, and (2) to help policymakers, donors, and development partners identify policies and programs that would likely be effective in mitigating the impact of HIV/AIDS. This study demonstrates that it is imperative that policymakers, program managers, donors, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), PLHAs, and orphans and vulnerable children work together to identify a means of providing services that target the most vulnerable children while addressing the unique needs of every child. The recommendations set forth in this study are based on the study findings, as well as findings from a workshop that was held in August 2004.
    Khmer
    CAM_OVC_Kh.pdf
  • This two-page flyer provides a summary of each model included in the Spectrum Suite of Policy Models. It can be used as an insert with the "Spectrum Training for Policy Success" brochure.
    English
    spectrum_insert.pdf
  • This document was written at the request of the Service Delivery Improvement Division as part of its planning process for the next decade. It focuses primarily upon features that concern the provision of services, not upon all aspects of reproductive health programs. The first five sections present the factual background; the final two sections build on those to suggest future program strategies and options.
    English
    WW_ServiceDelivery.pdf
  • Through a targeted package of activities, POLICY assisted major stakeholders in analyzing the operational policy barriers to implementing the National Reproductive Health Program 2001-2005 (NRHP). POLICY also provided technical assistance from September 2001 to November 2003 to help the RH Policy Development Group identify and document operational policy barriers to efficient resource allocation and use in two typical Ukrainian cities (Kamianets-Podilsky and Svitlovodsk) and to help RH stakeholders in Kamianets-Podilsky set priorities and include them in an RH implementation plan. This paper documents the role of the POLICY Project in achieving policy changes and decisions regarding the NRHP.
    English
    Ukraine CP final 11.05.doc
  • A fresh reason for attending to fertility dynamics has emerged—the “demographic dividend.” As fertility rates fall during the demographic transition, if countries act wisely before and during the transition, a special window opens up for faster economic growth and human development.
    English
    Demo_Div.pdf