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Browse POLICY Project (1995-2006) Materials

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2005

  • This document has been compiled by the International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP)/UNESCO HIV/AIDS Impact on Education Clearinghouse in cooperation with POLICY /Futures Group. It aims to bring together, for ease of access, national and education sector HIV/AIDS policies and strategies adopted by governments to manage the impact of HIV/AIDS on their country or more specifically their education systems, to help protect their populations from infection and to care for those who are infected or affected by HIV/AIDS. These resources are provided for information purposes only and inclusion of a policy or strategy in this document does not necessarily signify approval on the part of IIEP/UNESCO or POLICY/Futures Group.
    English
    IIEP_POLICY.pdf
  • Over two decades since the first AIDS case was described in Kenya, HIV/AIDS still remains a huge problem for the country in its efforts for social and economic development. Responses to the pandemic have evolved over time as people became aware of this new disease, as they experienced illness and death among family members, and as services have developed to confront this epidemic. Initially many segments of society expressed denial of the disease. Early in the epidemic in Kenya political commitment was limited. While awareness of AIDS has been nearly universal for more than a decade, misconceptions still abound and many still have not dealt with this disease at a personal or community level. The purpose of AIDS in Kenya has been to inform leadership and citizens of the country about the epidemic, make projections about its impact, and describe policy. Emphasis of the publication now shifts; this edition: " describes the level and trends of HIV infection; " assesses the breadth and depth of knowledge of HIV; " identifies behavioural patterns associated with these trends; " provides information on HIV prevalence from VCT clients, STI patients and blood donors; " describes the scale-up in HIV prevention services; " analyses the interaction of the TB and HIV epidemics; " describes the expansion of HIV care and treatment; and " assesses the socio-economic impact and costs of AIDS.
    English
    KEN_AIDS_7thEd.pdf
  • Russian
    AimmanR.pdf
  • Le Modèle sur l'impact du SIDA, connu sous le sigle AIM, est un programme informatique permettant de projeter l'impact de l'épidémie du SIDA. Il peut être utilisé pour projeter le nombre futur d'infections par le VIH, de cas de SIDA et de décès imputables au SIDA à partir d'une hypothèse sur la prévalence du VIH chez les adultes. Il peut également projeter les impacts démographiques et sociaux du SIDA. Ensuite, ces projections peuvent être utilisées sous forme de présentations graphiques visant à sensibiliser davantage les responsables au problème du SIDA et à mettre en place l'appui nécessaire pour des activités de prévention et de soin efficaces.
    French
    AimmanF.pdf
  • El Modelo de Impacto del SIDA, conocido como AIM, es un programa de computadora para calcular proyecciones del impacto de la epidemia de SIDA. Puede usarse para proyectar el número futuro de infecciones de VIH, casos de SIDA y muertes por SIDA, sobre la base de una suposición sobre el predominio de VIH entre los adultos. También puede proyectar los impactos demográficos y sociales del SIDA. Luego, estas proyecciones pueden usarse en presentaciones gráficas de política diseñadas para ampliar el conocimiento del SIDA entre los responsables de asentar políticas y forjar apoyo para una prevención y atención eficaz.
    Spanish
    AimmanS1.pdf
  • Owing to the high fertility and declining mortality experiences in the past, Kenya is characterized by a youthful population with over 40 per cent being younger than 15 years. This implies that over half of Kenyas population, about 31 million in 2004 is aged below 24 years, with a large peoportion being adolescents. Consequently, Kenya faces the formidible challenge of providing its adolescents with opportunities for a safe, healthy, and economically productive future. In line with the ICPD recommendations, Kenya has put in place an Adolescent Reproductive Health and Development (ARH&D) Policy to enhance the implementation and coordination of programmes that address the reproductive health and development needs of young people in the country. The principles spelt out in the ARH&D Policy provided a conceptual guide to the development of this Plan of Action, which further distinguishes four strategic areas: advocacy; health awareness and behaviour change communication; access to and utilization of sustainable youth friendly services; and management. This Plan of Action also provides an estimation of the total resources required to achieve the goal and objectives outlined in the Adolescent Reproductive Health and Development Policy.
    English
    KEN_ARH_POA 2005-15.pdf
  • Planning for comprehensive reproductive health programs has been hampered by a lack of tools to relate program actions to goals. Although most countries have developed or are developing reproductive health action plans (RHAP), there are many challenges to this work. Some of the biggest challenges are how to answer the following questions: • How much funding is required to achieve the goals of the RHAP? • What goals are feasible (for indicators such as unintended pregnancies, maternal mortality ratio, abortions)? • How should we allocate the available resources to best achieve these goals? Allocate is a tool that can be used to answer some of these questions. It examines the linkages and interactions between three main areas of a representative RHAP: family planning, safe motherhood, and post-abortion care. It summarizes output from other Spectrum models on one summary screen. Allocate then provides a mechanism to re-allocate and/or increase budgets for each of the various models, with resultant impacts shown on the summary screen.
    English
    AlloManE.pdf
  • The Allocate Model was designed to help countries overcome policy challenges by linking funding to program activities and linking program activities to outcome indicators. The models main objective is to help planners understand the relationship between funding levels and the effective implementation of safe motherhood, postabortion care, and family planning programs. The model aims to improve resource allocation for components of reproductive health (RH) programs by demonstrating its effects on a variety of national indicators. For example, what is the likely effect on maternal mortality rates if funding for family planning is reduced or increased? The Allocate Model facilitates the design of integrated national plans with attached budgets. The following models are used in the Allocate application. " DemProj. Forecasts the population structure for a country or a specific region by age and gender and by rural or urban residence based on specific fertility, mortality, and migration trends for up to 50 years in the future. This model serves as the base for most of the other models. " FamPlan. Estimates the number of users and acceptors and the cost of providing family planning (FP) services to (1) reduce unmet need for family planning, (2) achieve desired fertility, (3) attain a specified total fertility rate (TFR), (4) attain a specified contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR), and (5) achieve the maximum possible within a specific budget. FamPlan calculates indicators showing the number of users, commodities required, costs, unplanned pregnancies and births, and the number of abortions. " Safe Motherhood Model (SMM). Supports priority-setting exercises to demonstrate how improvements in program effort can help reduce maternal mortality rates. It allows improvements in different support and service areas and shows the impact of various patterns of effort. This model has a cost component that allows the user to cost out different interventions to help design national plans, strategies, and budgets. " Postabortion care (PAC) Model. Analyzes the effect of certain FP assumptions on maternal deaths; distributes maternal deaths according to planned births, unplanned births, and abortions; and demonstrates how the allocation of expenditures can increase postabortion treatments and reduce deaths. The POLICY Project provided technical assistance (TA) to Ukraine between February and July 2005, using the Allocate Model to help create a comprehensive National Reproductive Health Plan (NRHP) and to achieve greater efficiency in the use of available funds.
    English
    Ukraine Allocate Core Report.doc
  • Ethiopias 1994 National Population Policy sets ambitious goals for 2015. However, most of the components of the policy have not been implemented and progress has been slow. In early 2004, the Ministry of Health (MOH), the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), and other donors discussed the need to update the National Population Policy and create a Reproductive Health Strategic Framework. This activity was to be conducted jointly with major donors and stakeholders. The strategic framework was to address all areas of reproductive health, including family planning, safe motherhood, postabortion care, adolescent reproductive health, and possibly HIV/AIDS. At the same time, the government of Ethiopia was developing plans to achieve the Millennium Development Goals. The MOH was requested to indicate what actions and how much funding would be required to achieve the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) for safe motherhood. The Allocate Model was applied in Ethiopia to provide a thorough test of the model; to prepare an improved RH action plan with increased efficiency in the use of funding resources; and to foster dialogue among all stakeholders regarding RH priorities.
    English
    Ethiopia Allocate case study.doc
  • This study tests the hypothesis suggested by many smaller studies that young people prefer to use private providers to access contraceptive methods. It examines the patterns in young women’s levels of sexual activity, use of modern methods of contraception, and sources of modern contraception by age group and union status, using Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data. In addition, while controlling for other important explanatory variables, the study seeks to answer the question of whether young women are more likely to choose private sector providers than older women. Results indicate that young women ages 15–24 have higher levels of sexual experience in Africa than in the Latin American, Caribbean, or Asian countries included in this analysis. Overall proportions of young women currently using modern contraceptive methods in Africa, however, are quite low when compared with countries included in the analysis from the Latin American, Caribbean, and Asian regions. Data examining whether young women are more likely than older women to choose private sector providers—while controlling for important explanatory variables—reveal mixed results. In Africa, data for most countries indicate that young women are significantly more likely to choose private and commercial sector providers. In two of the four countries examined in Asia, young women were significantly more likely to choose the private sector. Only in the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries were young women generally less likely to choose private and commercial sector providers than older women.
    English
    contraception_sources.pdf
  • As part of the POLICY Project’s investigations into the delivery of family planning (FP) services in the context of high HIV prevalence, six focus group discussions were held in Cambodia in December 2004. The aim of these discussions was to document the views of FP users, service providers, and HIV-positive (HIV+) women on the accessibility and quality of FP services, particularly in light of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Cambodia.
    English
    CamFP-HIV_FGDs.pdf
  • Involving men in reproductive healthcare could help Cambodia achieve some major development goals, such as a decreased maternal mortality rate and an increased contraceptive prevalence rate. Involving men could also help reduce the overall prevalence of HIV/AIDS—an outcome possible only if men are involved not just as clients of RH care but also as partners, service providers, policymakers, teachers, and project managers. Until today, male involvement in RH in Cambodia has been relatively underdeveloped. Despite the availability of a few contraceptive methods for men, maternal and child health (MCH) programs provide most RH care, strategic plans and services lack indicators for men, and most service providers are not equipped or trained to accommodate male clients. RH facilities tend to be female-oriented; as a result, men are often reluctant to avail themselves of services. Men’s reluctance to access RH care can also mean that barriers to accessing health, such as distance and cost, which affect both men and women, are even more influential in preventing men from seeking RH counseling or treatment or even seeking services as partners. To expand and strengthen male involvement in reproductive health in Cambodia, this report offers the following recommendations: • A set of guidelines to mainstream male involvement need to be developed and distributed. • Agencies interested in implementing male involvement in reproductive health must plan for a long-term commitment. • Campaigns need to be implemented that educate seemingly “low-risk” social and demographic groups. • Current education campaigns need to be reviewed in the context of male involvement and should not, for example, reinforce gender inequities or the notion that condom use is restricted only to high-risk situations. • Existing services should be made more “male-friendly,” with service providers undergoing additional training and engaging in effective outreach activities. • The private health sector should be directly involved in efforts that foster male involvement.
    English
    MaleInvolv_Cam.pdf
  • POLICY, GNP+ and GTZ collaborated to develop new tools to increase PLHA involvement in the Global Fund CCMs. "Challenging, Changing, and Mobilizing: A Guide to PLHIV Involvement in Country Coordinating Mechanisms" is a handbook developed for use by PLHA already working on HIV/AIDS with some prior knowledge of the Global Fund. The handbook includes information on the Global Fund and CMM basics, how to be an effective CCM member and how to improve CCMs through the greater involvement of PLHAs. The handbook will be available in early 2005. The aim of the handbook is to increase and improve the meaningful participation of People Living with HIV (PLHIV) on Global Fund Country Coordinating Mechanisms (CCMs) across the world. This development will undoubtedly enhance the ability of the Global Fund to be an effective force in serving the communities most in need and will also contribute to facilitating PLHIV access to Global Fund resources. This handbook is the product of numerous consultations and input of over 400 people living with HIV (PLHIV) from more than 30 countries in every region of the world, with the vast majority of those involved living in developing countries and countries in transition. This handbook was created primarily for PLHIV who are already working on HIV/AIDS issues in their country and who have some prior knowledge of the Global Fund. It is anticipated that many in the target audience will already be involved in some aspect of work that is related to the Global Fund, perhaps through membership on a CCM, as members of networks represented on a CCM, or as sub-recipients of Global Fund grants. Some may not be directly involved at present, but may have an interest in learning more about the Global Fund and in advocating for inclusion of a network or organization on the CCM in a specific country or region.
    English
    CCM_Handbook.pdf
  • POLICY, GNP+ and GTZ collaborated to develop new tools to increase PLHA involvement in the Global Fund CCMs. "Challenging, Changing, and Mobilizing: A Guide to PLHIV Involvement in Country Coordinating Mechanisms" is a handbook developed for use by PLHA already working on HIV/AIDS with some prior knowledge of the Global Fund. The handbook includes information on the Global Fund and CMM basics, how to be an effective CCM member and how to improve CCMs through the greater involvement of PLHAs. The handbook will be available in early 2005. The aim of the handbook is to increase and improve the meaningful participation of People Living with HIV (PLHIV) on Global Fund Country Coordinating Mechanisms (CCMs) across the world. This development will undoubtedly enhance the ability of the Global Fund to be an effective force in serving the communities most in need and will also contribute to facilitating PLHIV access to Global Fund resources. This handbook is the product of numerous consultations and input of over 400 people living with HIV (PLHIV) from more than 30 countries in every region of the world, with the vast majority of those involved living in developing countries and countries in transition. This handbook was created primarily for PLHIV who are already working on HIV/AIDS issues in their country and who have some prior knowledge of the Global Fund. It is anticipated that many in the target audience will already be involved in some aspect of work that is related to the Global Fund, perhaps through membership on a CCM, as members of networks represented on a CCM, or as sub-recipients of Global Fund grants. Some may not be directly involved at present, but may have an interest in learning more about the Global Fund and in advocating for inclusion of a network or organization on the CCM in a specific country or region.
    Russian
    CCM_Handbook_RUS.pdf
  • As HIV/AIDS has evolved from being viewed as a public health issue-to be dealt with primarily by doctors and scientific researchers-to being recognized as an epidemic that affects every aspect of a country's national and socioeconomic development, the need for strong commitment and leadership has become even more apparent. The need for strong leadership is acutely felt in low prevalence countries where there is still an opportunity to contain the spread of the epidemic. But for many reasons, isolating, defining, and measuring what "political commitment" really is has been difficult. This paper reflects on key questions surrounding political commitment and leadership in the HIV/AIDS arena. It begins with a review of what we know about political commitment today-why it matters, what its characteristics are, how it has been measured to date, and how it can be strengthened. The paper then turns attention to the multi-country pilot assessment study in Asia, reviewing common themes from the country studies, analyzing lessons learned, and providing concluding thoughts and recommendations for future study and action.
    English
    PC_Synthesis.pdf
  • Political commitment and leadership are essential for creating an enabling environment that promotes the development and growth of appropriate, sustainable HIV/AIDS policies and programs. The need for strong leadership is acutely felt in low HIV prevalence countries where there is still an opportunity to contain the spread of the epidemic. However, “political commitment” is a term that is often used without a clear sense of what it means, how it affects programs, when it can be most effective, and how it can be strengthened by advocates and policymakers. Building on experience with monitoring national program efforts in the family planning/reproductive health, maternal health, and HIV/AIDS fields, the POLICY Project developed a questionnaire that assesses various aspects of political commitment. POLICY then worked with local counterparts to pilot test the questionnaire in four low-prevalence countries in Asia. The pilot studies show that the political commitment assessment guide can serve as a useful tool for helping HIV/AIDS advocates and policymakers analyze a country’s national political commitment and leadership for confronting HIV/AIDS. In-country researchers can use the assessment guide to tailor questions to their country’s unique context. Such research can lay the foundation for identifying areas of strength and weakness in the country’s HIV/AIDS program and highlighting areas for future advocacy and policy change efforts.
    English
    ACF1AA.pdf
  • Political commitment and leadership are essential for creating an enabling environment that promotes the development and growth of appropriate, sustainable HIV/AIDS policies and programs. The need for strong leadership is acutely felt in low HIV prevalence countries where there is still an opportunity to contain the spread of the epidemic. However, “political commitment” is a term that is often used without a clear sense of what it means, how it affects programs, when it can be most effective, and how it can be strengthened by advocates and policymakers. Building on experience with monitoring national program efforts in the family planning/reproductive health, maternal health, and HIV/AIDS fields, the POLICY Project developed a questionnaire that assesses various aspects of political commitment. POLICY then worked with local counterparts to pilot test the questionnaire in four low-prevalence countries in Asia. The pilot studies show that the political commitment assessment guide can serve as a useful tool for helping HIV/AIDS advocates and policymakers analyze a country’s national political commitment and leadership for confronting HIV/AIDS. In-country researchers can use the assessment guide to tailor questions to their country’s unique context. Such research can lay the foundation for identifying areas of strength and weakness in the country’s HIV/AIDS program and highlighting areas for future advocacy and policy change efforts.
    English
    ACF1AD.pdf
  • Political commitment and leadership are essential for creating an enabling environment that promotes the development and growth of appropriate, sustainable HIV/AIDS policies and programs. The need for strong leadership is acutely felt in low HIV prevalence countries where there is still an opportunity to contain the spread of the epidemic. However, “political commitment” is a term that is often used without a clear sense of what it means, how it affects programs, when it can be most effective, and how it can be strengthened by advocates and policymakers. Building on experience with monitoring national program efforts in the family planning/reproductive health, maternal health, and HIV/AIDS fields, the POLICY Project developed a questionnaire that assesses various aspects of political commitment. POLICY then worked with local counterparts to pilot test the questionnaire in four low-prevalence countries in Asia. The pilot studies show that the political commitment assessment guide can serve as a useful tool for helping HIV/AIDS advocates and policymakers analyze a country’s national political commitment and leadership for confronting HIV/AIDS. In-country researchers can use the assessment guide to tailor questions to their country’s unique context. Such research can lay the foundation for identifying areas of strength and weakness in the country’s HIV/AIDS program and highlighting areas for future advocacy and policy change efforts.
    English
    ACF1B0.pdf
  • Political commitment and leadership are essential for creating an enabling environment that promotes the development and growth of appropriate, sustainable HIV/AIDS policies and programs. The need for strong leadership is acutely felt in low HIV prevalence countries where there is still an opportunity to contain the spread of the epidemic. However, “political commitment” is a term that is often used without a clear sense of what it means, how it affects programs, when it can be most effective, and how it can be strengthened by advocates and policymakers. Building on experience with monitoring national program efforts in the family planning/reproductive health, maternal health, and HIV/AIDS fields, the POLICY Project developed a questionnaire that assesses various aspects of political commitment. POLICY then worked with local counterparts to pilot test the questionnaire in four low-prevalence countries in Asia. The pilot studies show that the political commitment assessment guide can serve as a useful tool for helping HIV/AIDS advocates and policymakers analyze a country’s national political commitment and leadership for confronting HIV/AIDS. In-country researchers can use the assessment guide to tailor questions to their country’s unique context. Such research can lay the foundation for identifying areas of strength and weakness in the country’s HIV/AIDS program and highlighting areas for future advocacy and policy change efforts.
    English
    ACF1B3.pdf
  • In the summer of 2003, USAID's Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean launched regional initiative to determine how contraceptive security in the LAC region could be more effectively addressed and strengthened in light of the phase-out of contraceptive donations. The initiative, which is being implemented by the POLICY and DELIVER Projects, commenced in July 2003 with a Regional Meeting in Managua, Nicaragua. Seventy representatives from governments, nongovernmental organizations, UNFPA, and USAID from nine Latin American countries came together to discuss and share their country's experiences with donor phase-out and efforts to achieve contraceptive security. The meeting was followed by two-week country assessments in Bolivia, Honduras, Nicaragua, Paraguay, and Peru, which were conducted between September 2003 and May 2004. Each assessment resulted in a full assessment report and an accompanying summary of country-level findings. Findings in each country were also presented to stakeholders at the end of each assessment. A regional report describes the findings at the regional level and makes recommendations for regional contraceptive security initiatives.
    English
    ACF400.pdf
  • In the summer of 2003, USAID's Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean launched regional initiative to determine how contraceptive security in the LAC region could be more effectively addressed and strengthened in light of the phase-out of contraceptive donations. The initiative, which is being implemented by the POLICY and DELIVER Projects, commenced in July 2003 with a Regional Meeting in Managua, Nicaragua. Seventy representatives from governments, nongovernmental organizations, UNFPA, and USAID from nine Latin American countries came together to discuss and share their country's experiences with donor phase-out and efforts to achieve contraceptive security. The meeting was followed by two-week country assessments in Bolivia, Honduras, Nicaragua, Paraguay, and Peru, which were conducted between September 2003 and May 2004. Each assessment resulted in a full assessment report and an accompanying summary of country-level findings. Findings in each country were also presented to stakeholders at the end of each assessment. A regional report describes the findings at the regional level and makes recommendations for regional contraceptive security initiatives.
    English
    Honduras_CS_Eng.pdf
  • In the summer of 2003, USAID's Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean launched regional initiative to determine how contraceptive security in the LAC region could be more effectively addressed and strengthened in light of the phase-out of contraceptive donations. The initiative, which is being implemented by the POLICY and DELIVER Projects, commenced in July 2003 with a Regional Meeting in Managua, Nicaragua. Seventy representatives from governments, nongovernmental organizations, UNFPA, and USAID from nine Latin American countries came together to discuss and share their country's experiences with donor phase-out and efforts to achieve contraceptive security. The meeting was followed by two-week country assessments in Bolivia, Honduras, Nicaragua, Paraguay, and Peru, which were conducted between September 2003 and May 2004. Each assessment resulted in a full assessment report and an accompanying summary of country-level findings. Findings in each country were also presented to stakeholders at the end of each assessment. A regional report describes the findings at the regional level and makes recommendations for regional contraceptive security initiatives.
    English
    Nicaragua_CS_Eng.pdf
  • In the summer of 2003, USAID's Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean launched regional initiative to determine how contraceptive security in the LAC region could be more effectively addressed and strengthened in light of the phase-out of contraceptive donations. The initiative, which is being implemented by the POLICY and DELIVER Projects, commenced in July 2003 with a Regional Meeting in Managua, Nicaragua. Seventy representatives from governments, nongovernmental organizations, UNFPA, and USAID from nine Latin American countries came together to discuss and share their country's experiences with donor phase-out and efforts to achieve contraceptive security. The meeting was followed by two-week country assessments in Bolivia, Honduras, Nicaragua, Paraguay, and Peru, which were conducted between September 2003 and May 2004. Each assessment resulted in a full assessment report and an accompanying summary of country-level findings. Findings in each country were also presented to stakeholders at the end of each assessment. A regional report describes the findings at the regional level and makes recommendations for regional contraceptive security initiatives.
    English
    Paraguay_CS_Eng.pdf
  • In the summer of 2003, USAID's Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean launched regional initiative to determine how contraceptive security in the LAC region could be more effectively addressed and strengthened in light of the phase-out of contraceptive donations. The initiative, which is being implemented by the POLICY and DELIVER Projects, commenced in July 2003 with a Regional Meeting in Managua, Nicaragua. Seventy representatives from governments, nongovernmental organizations, UNFPA, and USAID from nine Latin American countries came together to discuss and share their country's experiences with donor phase-out and efforts to achieve contraceptive security. The meeting was followed by two-week country assessments in Bolivia, Honduras, Nicaragua, Paraguay, and Peru, which were conducted between September 2003 and May 2004. Each assessment resulted in a full assessment report and an accompanying summary of country-level findings. Findings in each country were also presented to stakeholders at the end of each assessment. A regional report describes the findings at the regional level and makes recommendations for regional contraceptive security initiatives.
    English
    Peru_CS_Eng.pdf
  • This report examines the present situation of both the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Cambodia and the progress of its FP program. It examines the trends in funding, staff resources, impact of the epidemic on personnel, and the activities of the government, private health sector and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in both sectors. Finally, the report will examine the efforts being made to integrate HIV/AIDS and FP services so that they jointly address these issues that are having such a profound effect on Cambodia’s development.
    English
    CamFP-HIV_analysis.pdf
  • This study is an investigation into the status and trends of family planning (FP) and reproductive health (RH) programs within the context of Ethiopia’s heightening HIV/AIDS epidemic. By helping individuals and couples control the number and timing of pregnancies, family planning provides far-reaching benefits (Dayaratna et al., 2000). In addition, by reducing unintended and high-risk pregnancies, family planning can lower the instances of maternal and child injury, illness, and death associated with childbirth and unsafe abortions (Shane, 1997). Ethiopia has not been able to expand FP services to satisfy the increasing unmet need in the country, and its maternal mortality ratio (MMR) ranks as one of the world’s highest. At the same time, Ethiopia is among the countries that have been hardest hit by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The findings of this study are expected to inform policy and program managers about the various dimensions of HIV/AIDS and family planning in Ethiopia.
    English
    EthiopiaFP-HIV.doc
  • This report includes results from 69 countries, including most low- and middle-income countries with more than 10,000 people living with HIV in 2005. The information presented here relies on national service statistics and expert assessment. These data focus on the quantity of services provided and do not address the quality of those services. In many countries, national consensus workshops were held to validate the data. Estimates of the population in need of each service have been derived from demographic and epidemiological statistics and may not correspond to national estimates of need, but are used here to present coverage estimates that are comparable across countries and regions. For countries that did not participate in the survey, we have used regional averages to estimate the number of people served. The results should be interpreted with caution, but are useful in indicating the progress made in the last two years toward future goals. For all regions combined, prevention services are provided to about 33% of sex workers, 9% of men who have sex with men, 34% of prisoners, and 16% of children living on the street. Twenty-six countries reported having prevention programs for injecting drug users, most from Eastern Europe and Asia. The most common type of program was information and education on risk reduction, which is provided for about one million injecting drug users. Needle and syringe exchange programs reach less than half as many (400,000) and drug substitution programs reach only about 32,000. Estimates of the number of injecting drug users are highly uncertain, but coverage of harm reduction programs is still low in most lowand middle-income countries. In short, significant progress has been made in most areas since 2001, but the only programs that provide access to most people who need services are AIDS education in the schools and condoms. Some regions have achieved universal access for some services, such as ART in Latin America. In most other areas, greater effort will be required to expand services to meet the goal of universal access.
    English
    HIVCoverage20051.pdf
  • Excel file with the country annex tables to accompany the document, "Coverage of selected services for HIV/AIDS prevention, care, and treatment in low- and middle-income countries in 2005."
    English
    FINAL HIV Coverage Survey 2005 - Country Annex Tables.xls
  • Le modèle démographique de Spectrum, connu sous le nom de DemProj, est un programme informatique permettant de faire des projections démographiques pour des pays ou régions. Le programme nécessite une information sur le nombre de personnes par âge et par sexe de l'année de base ainsi que des données de l'année courante et des hypothèses futures sur l'indice synthétique de fécondité (ISF), la distribution par âge de la fécondité, l'espérance de vie à la naissance par sexe, la table type de mortalité la plus appropriée ainsi que le volume et le mode des migrations internationales (toutes ces informations sont traitées au Chapitre III). Cette information est utilisée pour projeter la taille de la population par âge et par sexe jusqu'à 150 ans dans l'avenir. Si on le souhaite, la projection peut également estimer la taille des populations urbaines et rurales. En reliant DemProj à d'autres modules de Spectrum, il est possible d'examiner l'impact démographique du SIDA (AIM), les services de planification familiale nécessaires pour atteindre les objectifs démographiques et de santé (FamPlan), les coûts et les bénéfices des programmes de planification familiale (Coûts-Bénéfices) et les impacts socioéconomiques d'une fécondité élevée et d'une croissance rapide de la population (RAPID).
    French
    DemmanF.pdf
  • El modelo demográfico en Spectrum, conocido como DemProj, es un programa informático para hacer proyecciones de población para países o regiones. El programa requiere información del número de personas por edad y sexo en el año base, así como los datos del año base y los supuestos futuros acerca de la Tasa Global de Fecundidad (TGF), la distribución de la fecundidad por edad, la esperanza de vida al nacer por sexo, la tabla de vida más apropiada en el modelo, y la magnitud y patrón de la migración internacional (estos datos se tratan en el Capítulo III). Esta información se usa para proyectar el tamaño de la población futura por edad y género para los 150 años siguientes. Si se desea, la proyección también puede estimar el tamaño de la población urbana y rural. Usando combinadamente el DemProj con los otros módulos en Spectrum es posible evaluar el impacto demográfico del SIDA (AIM), los requerimientos del servicio de planificación familiar para alcanzar las metas demográficas y de salud (FamPlan), los costos y beneficios de los programas de planificación familiar y los impactos socio-económicos de la alta fecundidad y el rápido crecimiento poblacional (RAPID).
    Spanish
    DemmanS1.pdf
  • Russian
    DemmanR.pdf
  • Based on proceedings of an October 2003 workshop conducted in Guatemala with support from POLICY Project and the International HIV/AIDS Alliance, this Spanish manual is an important contribution to the literature on best practices, lessons learned, and case studies in HIV/AIDS/STI prevention for MSM in the region. Presented in terms of processes, impact/results, and monitoring and evaluation, the document is also a useful tool for designing and improving HIV/AIDS/STI prevention programs. With attention to regional cooperation, communication, capacity building, advocacy, and financing of MSM HIV/AIDS/STI prevention programs, the manual provides comprehensive and practical guidelines for program planners as well as policymakers.
    Spanish
    LAC_MSM_sp.pdf
  • English
    JamRHinteg.pdf
  • In the summer of 2003, USAID's Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean launched regional initiative to determine how contraceptive security in the LAC region could be more effectively addressed and strengthened in light of the phase-out of contraceptive donations. The initiative, which is being implemented by the POLICY and DELIVER Projects, commenced in July 2003 with a Regional Meeting in Managua, Nicaragua. Seventy representatives from governments, nongovernmental organizations, UNFPA, and USAID from nine Latin American countries came together to discuss and share their country's experiences with donor phase-out and efforts to achieve contraceptive security. The meeting was followed by two-week country assessments in Bolivia, Honduras, Nicaragua, Paraguay, and Peru, which were conducted between September 2003 and May 2004. Each assessment resulted in a full assessment report and an accompanying summary of country-level findings. Findings in each country were also presented to stakeholders at the end of each assessment. A regional report describes the findings at the regional level and makes recommendations for regional contraceptive security initiatives.
    Spanish
    Bolivia_CS_Sp.pdf
  • In the summer of 2003, USAID's Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean launched regional initiative to determine how contraceptive security in the LAC region could be more effectively addressed and strengthened in light of the phase-out of contraceptive donations. The initiative, which is being implemented by the POLICY and DELIVER Projects, commenced in July 2003 with a Regional Meeting in Managua, Nicaragua. Seventy representatives from governments, nongovernmental organizations, UNFPA, and USAID from nine Latin American countries came together to discuss and share their country's experiences with donor phase-out and efforts to achieve contraceptive security. The meeting was followed by two-week country assessments in Bolivia, Honduras, Nicaragua, Paraguay, and Peru, which were conducted between September 2003 and May 2004. Each assessment resulted in a full assessment report and an accompanying summary of country-level findings. Findings in each country were also presented to stakeholders at the end of each assessment. A regional report describes the findings at the regional level and makes recommendations for regional contraceptive security initiatives.
    Spanish
    Honduras_CS_Sp.pdf
  • In the summer of 2003, USAID's Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean launched regional initiative to determine how contraceptive security in the LAC region could be more effectively addressed and strengthened in light of the phase-out of contraceptive donations. The initiative, which is being implemented by the POLICY and DELIVER Projects, commenced in July 2003 with a Regional Meeting in Managua, Nicaragua. Seventy representatives from governments, nongovernmental organizations, UNFPA, and USAID from nine Latin American countries came together to discuss and share their country's experiences with donor phase-out and efforts to achieve contraceptive security. The meeting was followed by two-week country assessments in Bolivia, Honduras, Nicaragua, Paraguay, and Peru, which were conducted between September 2003 and May 2004. Each assessment resulted in a full assessment report and an accompanying summary of country-level findings. Findings in each country were also presented to stakeholders at the end of each assessment. A regional report describes the findings at the regional level and makes recommendations for regional contraceptive security initiatives.
    Spanish
    Nicaragua_CS_SP.pdf
  • In the summer of 2003, USAID's Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean launched regional initiative to determine how contraceptive security in the LAC region could be more effectively addressed and strengthened in light of the phase-out of contraceptive donations. The initiative, which is being implemented by the POLICY and DELIVER Projects, commenced in July 2003 with a Regional Meeting in Managua, Nicaragua. Seventy representatives from governments, nongovernmental organizations, UNFPA, and USAID from nine Latin American countries came together to discuss and share their country's experiences with donor phase-out and efforts to achieve contraceptive security. The meeting was followed by two-week country assessments in Bolivia, Honduras, Nicaragua, Paraguay, and Peru, which were conducted between September 2003 and May 2004. Each assessment resulted in a full assessment report and an accompanying summary of country-level findings. Findings in each country were also presented to stakeholders at the end of each assessment. A regional report describes the findings at the regional level and makes recommendations for regional contraceptive security initiatives.
    Spanish
    ACF3D1.pdf
  • In the summer of 2003, USAID's Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean launched regional initiative to determine how contraceptive security in the LAC region could be more effectively addressed and strengthened in light of the phase-out of contraceptive donations. The initiative, which is being implemented by the POLICY and DELIVER Projects, commenced in July 2003 with a Regional Meeting in Managua, Nicaragua. Seventy representatives from governments, nongovernmental organizations, UNFPA, and USAID from nine Latin American countries came together to discuss and share their country's experiences with donor phase-out and efforts to achieve contraceptive security. The meeting was followed by two-week country assessments in Bolivia, Honduras, Nicaragua, Paraguay, and Peru, which were conducted between September 2003 and May 2004. Each assessment resulted in a full assessment report and an accompanying summary of country-level findings. Findings in each country were also presented to stakeholders at the end of each assessment. A regional report describes the findings at the regional level and makes recommendations for regional contraceptive security initiatives.
    Spanish
    Peru_CS_SP.pdf
  • English
    SPARHCS-Egypt.doc
  • English
    SPARHCS-Honduras.doc
  • English
    SPARHCS-Jordan.doc
  • English
    SPARHCS-Nicaragua.doc
  • English
    SPARHCS-Paraguay.doc
  • English
    SPARHCS-Peru.doc
  • English
    SPARHCS-Ukraine.doc
  • English
    SPARHCS-Bolivia.doc
  • French
    WW_WillToPay_Fr.pdf
  • Over the past decade, Cambodia has made good progress in re-establishing a nationwide health system that had been devastated by decades of civil conflict. The efforts of the Ministry of Health and nongovernmental organizations to expand family planning services have had an impact on individual lives and most health indicators. Between 1995 and 2000, the contraceptive prevalence rate for married couples practicing modern family planning methods increased from 7 to 18.5 percent. The risk that women will die due to pregnancy-related causes, while still quite high, has also been greatly reduced due to lower fertility and improved access to service provision. Despite these achievements, Cambodia faces great challenges. This booklet reviews Cambodia's current reproductive health situation and focuses on the challenges ahead for family planning and safe motherhood programs. (Hard copy available in English and Khmer)
    English
    CAM_SavingLives.pdf
  • This report provides a summary analysis of the resources required to achieve the broad objectives outlined in Kenyas National AIDS Strategic Plan (KNASP). The report specifically provides summary information on the key interventions as laid out in the KNASP (2005-2010) and the financial resources required for a credible response to the epidemic. The report also includes the best estimates on the current coverage of those interventions; the current assumptions about HIV/AIDS capacity required to scale up coverage; the best current estimates; and the current and projected HIV/AIDS resources. The data specific to Kenya were obtained using a combination of: 1) key informant interviews with representatives from government, US government agencies, UN institutions, and local universities; 2) a review of six existing HIV/AIDS budgets in Kenya; 3) review of international literature; and 4) various demographic and economic surveys conducted on HIV/AIDS interventions in Kenya.
    English
    KEN_NASP.pdf
  • Although user fees are increasingly being used in government health programs to alleviate the pressure on constrained budgets as demand for services increases, results in developing countries thus far have been mixed and concerns that fees reduce access to services among the poor have led to the promotion of fee exemption mechanisms. These exemptions, however, may not be an effective response because (1) informal fees and other costs associated with seeking and receiving services are not alleviated by most exemption mechanisms, and (2) exemption mechanisms are often poorly implemented. The low proportion of formal fees to total costs to the consumer and the unpredictable nature of informal fees may actually work against formal fee exemption mechanisms. Thus, it is important to assess whether these mechanisms alone hold promise for protecting access among the poor, or whether they need to be supplemented with other strategies. The objectives of this study were to: (1) survey actual costs to consumers for reproductive health (RH) care services including antenatal care (ANC), delivery care, family planning (FP), postabortion care (PAC), child healthcare, and reproductive tract infection (RTI) treatment; (2) review fee and waiver mechanisms; (3) assess the degree to which these mechanisms function as intended; (4) assess the degree to which residual costs to consumers (after accounting for fee exemptions) may constitute a barrier to these services; and (5) review current policies and practices on setting charges and collecting, retaining, and using fee revenue.
    English
    India Maternal Health User Fee Paper.Country Report.FINAL.doc
  • The right to own and inherit property is a crosscutting right that traverses the realm of civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights. This right is central to the true empowerment of everyone in society (men, women, boys and girls) and is a key developmental right. It is the common right to all societies and cultures. It is central to securing the dignity of all members of the society. Emerging legal and social trends, as they relate to the ownership and inheritance of property, indicate a practice that has largely worked out to the detriment of women in virtually all communities and social classes in Kenya. They include the laws relating to property, to marriage and dissolution of marriage, land registration systems, and the social and cultural attitudes that determine the actual enjoyment of these rights. Compounding the problem is the HIV/AIDS pandemic, which has caused massive destitution, displacements, blame-passing and mistrust in nearly all communities in Kenya. The high stigma associated with it has increased the vulnerability of women in this regard. In no other community in Kenya is the twin problem of societal and cultural practices - which discriminate against women and thereby translate into widespread of HIV/AIDS - more stark than within Luo Nyanza. It is against the backdrop of the realisation of this continuing trend of violation of womens (especially, but by no means limited to widows) right to property ownership and inheritance rights and the urgency of the problem in the face of HIV/AIDS pandemic that the POLICY Project  Kenya ( funded by the Futures Group) and Kenya National Commission on Human Rights (KNCHR) (funded by the Governance Justice Law and Order Sector reform program) came together inspired by the same need to work on enhancing the enjoyment of this right by women in Kenya.
    English
    KEN_InheritanceRights.pdf
  • From January 20022004, the POLICY Project and key stakeholders undertook an intensive, systematic policy analysis process that resulted in identifying two priority regulatory actions critical for reducing barriers to family planning and reproductive health (FP/RH); both actions were ultimately agreed to by Guatemalas Minister of Health, Dr. Julio Molina-Avilés. In January 2004, during his last weeks in office, Molina-Avilés signed a ministerial order that explicitly included the National Reproductive Health Program (NRHP) among the ministrys official health programs, effectively providing the policy and organizational foundation required to assure continuity of government-sponsored FP/RH service delivery under future administrations. He also supported modification of an existing government order that would define the NRHPs structure and functions and incorporated this and other stakeholder proposals for policy reform into the transition plan prepared for the incoming administration. The actions marked the end of a four-year period of support of FP/RH in Guatemala, as some members of the newly-elected incoming government vowed to reverse gains in FP/RH programs. Their task will be more difficult now because of the ministers actions and the broad political and popular support these actions received. This report traces the policy analysis process undertaken by stakeholders and POLICY by describing the context, methodology, sequence of events, major policy challenges, and the stakeholders involved in its successful outcome.
    English
    Guatemala CP final report.doc
  • Guidelines and overview of PLHA Global Fund Handbook.
    Other
    PLHA_CCMth.pdf
  • In less than a quarter of a century, the HIV/AIDS outbreak has become the most outstanding challenge worldwide. Over 30 million lives have been lost due to this devastating disease and about 40 million people are estimated to be living with HIV. HIV/AIDS causes unacceptable human suffering to the infected and affected individuals, their families, communities, and nations. Nepal has been affected by this complex epidemic, with an estimated 0.5 percent of the population being HIV positive (National Estimates of Adult HIV Infections–Nepal, 2003, NCASC, March 2004). Even a conservative estimate puts the number of people living with HIV or AIDS (PLWHA) in Nepal at over 61,000. Although HIV/AIDS prevalence in the Nepal Police Service is not known, it is reasonable to estimate that it is comparable with the national average of 0.5 percent. The prevalence may be even greater due to the nature of police work, which places them in vulnerable situations. An effective HIV/AIDS response requires adequately addressing the social and structural epidemics of poverty, conflict, war, gender inequality, stigma and discrimination, and human rights violations, which are fertile grounds for the spread of HIV/AIDS. These issues highlight the significant need for an educational program for the Nepal Police. This curriculum seeks to contribute to this purpose.
    English
    NEP_PoliceCurriculum.pdf
  • In the summer of 2003, USAID's Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean launched regional initiative to determine how contraceptive security in the LAC region could be more effectively addressed and strengthened in light of the phase-out of contraceptive donations. The initiative, which is being implemented by the POLICY and DELIVER Projects, commenced in July 2003 with a Regional Meeting in Managua, Nicaragua. Seventy representatives from governments, nongovernmental organizations, UNFPA, and USAID from nine Latin American countries came together to discuss and share their country's experiences with donor phase-out and efforts to achieve contraceptive security. The meeting was followed by two-week country assessments in Bolivia, Honduras, Nicaragua, Paraguay, and Peru, which were conducted between September 2003 and May 2004. Each assessment resulted in a full assessment report and an accompanying summary of country-level findings. Findings in each country were also presented to stakeholders at the end of each assessment. A regional report describes the findings at the regional level and makes recommendations for regional contraceptive security initiatives.
    Spanish
    Regional_CS_Sp.pdf
  • This brochure describes the KENEPOTE program. KENEPOTE is a network of HIV-positive teachers, founded in 2003 by two HIV-positive teachers. KENEPOTE aspires to create an environment where teachers with HIV and AIDS will be free from fear, shame, denial, stigma, and discrimination. The KENEPOTE mission is to build the capacity of it's members in advocacy for the reduction of stigma and discrimination, protection of rights of HIV-positive teachers, orphans and vulnerable children; increase access to psychosocial support services and skills to teachers; prevent further spread of HIV and AIDS in collaboration with other stakeholders by bringing positive change in attitude and behavior of communities to HIV and AIDS.
    English
    KEN_KENPOTEBrochure.pdf
  • This is a report of the first wrokshop held in Kenya for HIV-positive teachers in December 2004. It was organised by KENEPOTE and the POLICY Project. The goal of the workshop was to sensitise HIV-positive teachers and important education-sector stakeholders on KENPOTE goals, vision, mission, and objectives. The workshop further hoped to get HIV-positive teachers to share their workplace and life experiences and to explore ways in which they could unite to address the challenges facing them, given their great potential as Kenyan agents of change.
    English
    KEN_KENEPOTE.pdf
  • Throughout the world, a number of countries are facing withdrawal of funding and technical assistance for their family planning programs. This trend, known throughout the family planning community as “phaseout” or “graduation,” is occurring for various reasons. In many countries, phaseout is linked to the success of the family planning program and the ability of the country program to become self-reliant. As donors, missions, and governments make decisions to phaseout family planning support and create strategies for transitioning to an independent program, there is a need to reflect on experiences from past phaseouts. This case study of Mexico provides an in-depth look at a national family planning program before, during, and after phaseout and documents the lessons learned from that process.
    English
    Mexico_Phaseout_of_FP_Donor_Suppot_Report.pdf
  • Worldwide, over 500,000 women and girls die of complications related to pregnancy and childbirth each year. The tragedy - and opportunity - is that most of these deaths can be prevented with cost-effective health care services. POLICY's MNPI series provides country-specific data on maternal and neonatal health programs in more than 30 developing countries. Based on a study conducted by the Futures Group and funded through the MEASURE Evaluation Project, the MNPI is a tool that can be used to: Assess current health care services; identify program strengths and weaknesses; plan strategies to address deficiencies; encourage political and popular support for appropriate action; and track progress over time.
    English
    Bangladesh_MNPI_2002.pdf
  • English
    2005Benin.pdf
  • Worldwide, over 500,000 women and girls die of complications related to pregnancy and childbirth each year. The tragedy - and opportunity - is that most of these deaths can be prevented with cost-effective health care services. POLICY's MNPI series provides country-specific data on maternal and neonatal health programs in more than 30 developing countries. Based on a study conducted by the Futures Group and funded through the MEASURE Evaluation Project, the MNPI is a tool that can be used to: Assess current health care services; identify program strengths and weaknesses; plan strategies to address deficiencies; encourage political and popular support for appropriate action; and track progress over time.
    English
    Egypt_MNPI_2002.pdf
  • Worldwide, over 500,000 women and girls die of complications related to pregnancy and childbirth each year. The tragedy - and opportunity - is that most of these deaths can be prevented with cost-effective health care services. POLICY's MNPI series provides country-specific data on maternal and neonatal health programs in more than 30 developing countries. Based on a study conducted by the Futures Group and funded through the MEASURE Evaluation Project, the MNPI is a tool that can be used to: Assess current health care services; identify program strengths and weaknesses; plan strategies to address deficiencies; encourage political and popular support for appropriate action; and track progress over time.
    English
    Ethiopia_MNPI_2002.pdf
  • Worldwide, over 500,000 women and girls die of complications related to pregnancy and childbirth each year. The tragedy - and opportunity - is that most of these deaths can be prevented with cost-effective health care services. POLICY's MNPI series provides country-specific data on maternal and neonatal health programs in more than 30 developing countries. Based on a study conducted by the Futures Group and funded through the MEASURE Evaluation Project, the MNPI is a tool that can be used to: Assess current health care services; identify program strengths and weaknesses; plan strategies to address deficiencies; encourage political and popular support for appropriate action; and track progress over time.
    English
    Ghana_MNPI_2002.pdf
  • Worldwide, over 500,000 women and girls die of complications related to pregnancy and childbirth each year. The tragedy - and opportunity - is that most of these deaths can be prevented with cost-effective health care services. POLICY's MNPI series provides country-specific data on maternal and neonatal health programs in more than 30 developing countries. Based on a study conducted by the Futures Group and funded through the MEASURE Evaluation Project, the MNPI is a tool that can be used to: Assess current health care services; identify program strengths and weaknesses; plan strategies to address deficiencies; encourage political and popular support for appropriate action; and track progress over time.
    English
    Haiti_MNPI_2002.pdf
  • Worldwide, over 500,000 women and girls die of complications related to pregnancy and childbirth each year. The tragedy - and opportunity - is that most of these deaths can be prevented with cost-effective health care services. POLICY's MNPI series provides country-specific data on maternal and neonatal health programs in more than 30 developing countries. Based on a study conducted by the Futures Group and funded through the MEASURE Evaluation Project, the MNPI is a tool that can be used to: Assess current health care services; identify program strengths and weaknesses; plan strategies to address deficiencies; encourage political and popular support for appropriate action; and track progress over time.
    English
    Senegal_MNPI_2002.pdf
  • Worldwide, over 500,000 women and girls die of complications related to pregnancy and childbirth each year. The tragedy - and opportunity - is that most of these deaths can be prevented with cost-effective health care services. POLICY's MNPI series provides country-specific data on maternal and neonatal health programs in more than 30 developing countries. Based on a study conducted by the Futures Group and funded through the MEASURE Evaluation Project, the MNPI is a tool that can be used to: Assess current health care services; identify program strengths and weaknesses; plan strategies to address deficiencies; encourage political and popular support for appropriate action; and track progress over time.
    English
    Uganda_MNPI_2002.pdf
  • Worldwide, over 500,000 women and girls die of complications related to pregnancy and childbirth each year. The tragedy - and opportunity - is that most of these deaths can be prevented with cost-effective health care services. POLICY's MNPI series provides country-specific data on maternal and neonatal health programs in more than 30 developing countries. Based on a study conducted by the Futures Group and funded through the MEASURE Evaluation Project, the MNPI is a tool that can be used to: Assess current health care services; identify program strengths and weaknesses; plan strategies to address deficiencies; encourage political and popular support for appropriate action; and track progress over time.
    English
    Ukraine_MNPI_2002.pdf
  • Armed forces, police, and other uniformed services around the world face a serious risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), due to the nature and characteristics of their profession. As a civil force, the Nepal Police work closely with the population in all areas of the country and subsequently are frequently exposed to groups with increased vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. Although the risk of contracting HIV through performing the normal duties of uniformed services employees is so low as to be almost non-existent, there are other factors that can contribute to the vulnerability of uniformed services personnel. The overall objectives of the HIV/AIDS strategy for the Nepal Police are to halt the spread of the HIV/AIDS epidemic within the police force, their partners and families; to sensitize them toward the rights of vulnerable groups and their access to HIV/AIDS services, and to ensure that policing practices do not exacerbate the impact of the epidemic in Nepal through impeding HIV prevention initiatives. In order to meet these objectives, this strategy has been developed. The strategy broadly focuses on prevention as the fundamental basis for an effective response within the Nepal Police. The strategy recognizes the importance of research, accurate surveillance systems, and evaluation and monitoring of interventions. The strategy is guided by underlying principles including a rights-based approach, high-level leadership and commitment, reduction of stigma and discrimination, and greater involvement of people living with HIV/AIDS (GIPA).
    English
    NEP_PoliceStrategy.pdf
  • User fees are gaining widespread use in government health programs as a means of alleviating pressure on constrained budgets as demand for services increases. Concerns that fees reduce access to services among the poor have led to the promotion of fee exemption mechanisms in order to protect those unable to pay for services. The exemptions, however, may not effectively ensure access among the poor because (1) informal fees and other costs associated with seeking and receiving services are not alleviated by most exemption mechanisms and (2) exemption mechanisms are poorly implemented. The low proportion of formal fees to total costs to the consumer and the unpredictable nature of informal fees and other costs of access may actually work against formal fee exemption mechanisms. Even though little is known about how well fee and waiver mechanisms function for maternal health services, it is important to understand whether exemption mechanisms alone hold promise for protecting access for the poor or whether the mechanisms need to be supplemented with other strategies. This study was conducted simultaneously in five countries: Egypt, India (Uttaranchal), Kenya, Peru, and Vietnam. The objectives were to survey actual costs to consumers for antenatal and delivery care; survey current fee and waiver mechanisms; assess the degree to which these mechanisms function; assess the degree to which informal costs to consumers constitute a barrier to service; and review current policies and practices regarding the setting of fees and the collection, retention, and use of revenue.
    English
    WPS16.pdf
  • This four-page policy brief describes how advocacy efforts by civil society groups and a coalition of youth-focused nongovernmental organizations have helped ensure the implementation of the youth policy guidelines and how they played a key role in the approval of specific guidelines on adolescent health.
    English
    Peru country brief.pdf
  • This four-page policy brief describes how advocates in Egypt successfully carried out a youth-led effort to raise awareness for reproductive health needs and to strengthen the involvement of youth in policymaking and implementation.
    English
    Egypt country brief.pdf
  • Contraceptive security (CS) is achieved when people are assured of access to an uninterrupted supply and adequate mix of contraceptive commodities and enjoy open access to information and services related to those commodities. As developing countries strive to achieve contraceptive security amid growing demand for contraceptives, they are increasingly cognizant of the impact of directing resources to vulnerable groups and their ability to ensure equitable access for all, including HIV-positive women. Providing for the family planning needs of HIV-positive women is a vital component in the fight against HIV/AIDS and the achievement of international development goals. However, CS programs often do not successfully accommodate the special needs of HIV-positive women. Challenges to reaching this marginalized group include a limited choice of accessible contraceptive methods, lack of informed counseling regarding appropriate contraceptive options, stigma and discrimination that hinder their ability to access information and healthcare services, and operational barriers that thwart providers effective delivery of medical care. Achieving access to family planning information, services, and commodities for this group can have a significant impact on the HIV/AIDS epidemic, and interventions that successfully overcome the challenges can help achieve this goal. The World Health Organization (WHO) identifies four stages of perinatal HIV prevention at which women need support: (1) prevention of HIV infection in women, especially young women of reproductive age; (2)prevention of unintended pregnancy in HIV-positive women; (3) prevention of mother-tochild transmission; and (4) support for the HIV-positive mother and family (WHO, 2003). A comprehensive CS plan is consistent with supporting women at all four stages and can directly affect success at stages two and three by reducing the barriers faced by HIV-positive women in accessing family planning (FP) goods, services, and information. This brief describes the importance of ensuring contraceptive security for HIV-positivewomen. It also reviews common barriers faced by HIV-positive women as they attempt to access FP services and illustrates interventions that can increase the likelihood of overcoming these barriers.
    English
    PF Issues_English.pdf
  • La sécurité contraceptive (SC) est atteinte lorsque les personnes disposent d'un accès assuré à un approvisionnement régulier et à une gamme adéquate de divers produits contraceptifs et qu'elles peuvent obtenir toutes les informations et les services nécessaires liés à ces produits. Alors que les pays en développement font de leur mieux pour assurer une sécurité contraceptive face à une demande contraceptive sans cesse croissante, ils deviennent de plus en plus conscients de l'impact si les ressources ciblent les groupes vulnérables et leur capacité à assurer un accès équitable à tous, notamment aux femmes séropositives. Il est impératif de répondre aux besoins en planification familiale des femmes séropositives pour lutter contre le VIH/SIDA et pour atteindre les objectifs internationaux de développement. Toutefois, les programmes de SC ont souvent du mal à répondre pleinement aux besoins spécifiques des femmes séropositives. Bien des obstacles se dressent sur leur chemin pour atteindre ce groupe marginalisé: choix limité des méthodes contraceptives accessibles, manque de services-conseils de qualité sur les options contraceptives adéquates, stigmatisation et discrimination empêchant souvent ces femmes davoir accès aux informations et aux services nécessaires et barrières opérationnelles auxquelles se heurte le personnel soignant et qui entravent sa prestation efficace de soins médicaux. Donner accès à l'information, aux services et aux produits de planification familiale pour ce groupe peut avoir un impact notable sur l'épidémie de VIH/SIDA et les interventions qui surmonteront ces obstacles peuvent aider à atteindre cet objectif. L'Organisation mondiale de la Santé, OMS, identifie quatre étapes de la prévention périnatale du VIH auxquelles les femmes ont besoin d'aide: 1) prévention de l'infection à VIH chez les femmes, surtout les jeunes femmes en âge de procréer, 2) prévention de la grossesse non souhaitée chez les femmes séropositives, 3) prévention de la transmission mère-enfant et 4) soutien pour la mère séropositive et sa famille (WHO, 2003).Un plan SC complet répond à ces besoins d'aide aux femmes aux quatre étapes et peut affecter directement les étapes deux et trois en réduisant les barrières rencontrées par les femmes séropositives qui souhaiteraient avoir accès à des produits, services et informations en planification familiale (PF). Ce résumé dorientation décrit limportance dasssurer la sécurité contraceptive pour les femmes séropositives. Il passe en revue les barrières usuelles que rencontrent ces femmes séropositives dans leur quête pour obtenir des services de PF et présente des interventions qui sont susceptibles de supprimer ces obstacles.
    English
    PF Issues_French.pdf
  • DAIA se alcanza cuando los individuos tienen acceso garantizado al suministro ininterrumpido y a la combinación adecuada de insumos anticonceptivos y tienen acceso irrestricto a la información y a los servicios relacionados con dichos insumos. A medida que los países en vías de desarrollo luchan por lograr la seguridad anticonceptiva en medio de una creciente demanda de anticonceptivos, son más concientes del impacto que implica dirigir los recursos hacia grupos vulnerables y de su capacidad de garantizar un acceso equitativo para todos, inclusive para las mujeres VIH-positivas. El hecho de satisfacer las necesidades de planificación familiar de las mujeres VIHpositivas es un componente fundamental de la lucha contra el VIH/SIDA y para alcanzar los objetivos de desarrollo internacional. Sin embargo, por lo general, los planes de la DAIA no se ajustan en forma satisfactoria a las necesidades especiales de las mujeres VIH positivas. Entre los desafíos para alcanzar a este grupo marginal se incluye: una selección limitada de métodos anticonceptivos accesibles, falta de asesoramiento informado con respecto a las opciones anticonceptivas adecuadas, estigma y discriminación que dificultan su capacidad de acceso a la información y a los servicios de atención médica y barreras operativas que evitan que los profesionales de la salud proporcionen una atención médica efectiva. Si se logra que este grupo pueda acceder a la información, servicios e insumos elacionados con la planificación familiar puede tener un impacto significativo sobre la epidemia del VIH/SIDA y las intervenciones que superen satisfactoriamente los desafíos pueden contribuir a alcanzar este objetivo. La Organización Mundial de la Salud, OMS, (WHO, por su sigla en inglés) identifica cuatro etapas de prevención de la transmisión perinatal del VIH en las que las mujeres necesitan apoyo: (1) prevención de la infección de VIH en mujeres, especialmente en mujeres jóvenes en edad reproductiva; (2) prevención de embarazos no planeados en mujeres VIH-positivas; (3) prevención de la transmisión de madre a hijo; y (4) apoyo a las madres VIH-positivas y a sus familiares (WHO, 2003). Un plan de la DAIA integral concuerda con el apoyo a las mujeres durante las cuatro etapas y puede tener un impacto directo sobre el éxito de las etapas dos y tres, disminuyendo las barreras a las que se enfrentan las mujeres VIH positivas para acceder a los insumos, servicios e información sobre planificación familiar (PF). En este informe se describe la importancia de garantizar la disponibilidad de insumos anticonceptivos para las mujeres VIH-positivas. Asimismo, revisa las barreras comunes a las que se enfrentan las mujeres VIH-positivas cuando intentan acceder a los servicios de PF1 e ilustra las intervenciones que pueden aumentar la posibilidad de superar dichas barreras.
    English
    PF Issues_Spanish.pdf
  • This four-page brief describes the status of youth in Uganda and the policy environment within which the Uganda Reproductive Health Advocacy Network worked to achieve government approval and implementation of the first comprehensive National Adolescent Health Policy.
    English
    Uganda country brief.pdf
  • After the return to civilian rule and “re-certification” for USAID programs, the POLICY Project was among the first of USAID’s implementing partners to establish a program in Nigeria. The POLICY Project’s purpose was to strengthen the policy process in population, reproductive health, and HIV/AIDS as a basis for improved services. The project began working in Nigeria in late 1999, and set up an office with local staff by mid-2000. In 2002, the scope of the project was expanded from HIV/AIDS, population, and reproductive health to include child survival. POLICY’s principal partners in government were federal line ministries, two national commissions (planning and population), and the National Action Committee on AIDS(NACA), a multisectoral committee that develops and coordinates the national response to HIV/AIDS. Outside government, POLICY engaged in policy development, advocacy, and targeted public information activities with several national and regional Christian and Islamic bodies and numerous non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and community-based organizations(CBOs), including six NGO networks and one network of HIV/AIDS researchers. The project also worked at the state level by advocating for national policies in several states, developing an adolescent reproductive health policy and strategic plan in Edo State, and focusing on the northern states through activities with both federal ministry and NGO partners. Collaboration with donor agencies included communication and attendance at each other’s meetings on shared concerns, and technical or financial input on specific tasks such as assessments for donor program planning and co-sponsorship of conferences and events. POLICY and some donors also participated as stakeholders in NACA and in activities such as advocacy visits to states.
    English
    NIG_PP_Nigeria.pdf
  • The countries of West Africa have some of the highest levels of unmet need for family planning in the world. During the six-year period (1995–2000) following the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, there were an estimated 12 million unintended pregnancies in the 18 West Africa Regional Program (WARP) countries. Yet family planning programs are currently low on most national agendas and there is no concerted effort to address the expressed need for family planning. To reduce the health and development consequences of unintended fertility in West Africa, policymakers and planners need to study the characteristics of women with a demonstrated unmet need for family planning and use that information to improve policies and programs. This series of briefing papers is designed to contribute to that effort by offering some perspectives on the nature and dimensions of unmet need based on the findings of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) in 11 West African countries: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Guinea, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, and Togo. This brief focuses on Benin.
    English
    BEN_UnmetNeedFP.pdf
  • The countries of West Africa have some of the highest levels of unmet need for family planning in the world. During the six-year period (1995–2000) following the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, there were an estimated 12 million unintended pregnancies in the 18 West Africa Regional Program (WARP) countries. Yet family planning programs are currently low on most national agendas and there is no concerted effort to address the expressed need for family planning. To reduce the health and development consequences of unintended fertility in West Africa, policymakers and planners need to study the characteristics of women with a demonstrated unmet need for family planning and use that information to improve policies and programs. This series of briefing papers is designed to contribute to that effort by offering some perspectives on the nature and dimensions of unmet need based on the findings of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) in 11 West African countries: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Guinea, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, and Togo. This brief focuses on Burkina Faso.
    English
    BUR_UnmetNeedFP.pdf
  • The countries of West Africa have some of the highest levels of unmet need for family planning in the world. During the six-year period (1995–2000) following the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, there were an estimated 12 million unintended pregnancies in the 18 West Africa Regional Program (WARP) countries. Yet family planning programs are currently low on most national agendas and there is no concerted effort to address the expressed need for family planning. To reduce the health and development consequences of unintended fertility in West Africa, policymakers and planners need to study the characteristics of women with a demonstrated unmet need for family planning and use that information to improve policies and programs. This series of briefing papers is designed to contribute to that effort by offering some perspectives on the nature and dimensions of unmet need based on the findings of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) in 11 West African countries: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Guinea, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, and Togo. This brief focuses on Cameroon.
    English
    CAM_UnmetNeedFP.pdf
  • The countries of West Africa have some of the highest levels of unmet need for family planning in the world. During the six-year period (1995–2000) following the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, there were an estimated 12 million unintended pregnancies in the 18 West Africa Regional Program (WARP) countries. Yet family planning programs are currently low on most national agendas and there is no concerted effort to address the expressed need for family planning. To reduce the health and development consequences of unintended fertility in West Africa, policymakers and planners need to study the characteristics of women with a demonstrated unmet need for family planning and use that information to improve policies and programs. This series of briefing papers is designed to contribute to that effort by offering some perspectives on the nature and dimensions of unmet need based on the findings of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) in 11 West African countries: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Guinea, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, and Togo. This brief focuses on Cote d'Ivoire.
    English
    CDI_UnmetNeedFP.pdf
  • The countries of West Africa have some of the highest levels of unmet need for family planning in the world. During the six-year period (1995ý2000) following the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, there were an estimated 12 million unintended pregnancies in the 18 West Africa Regional Program (WARP) countries. Yet family planning programs are currently low on most national agendas and there is no concerted effort to address the expressed need for family planning. To reduce the health and development consequences of unintended fertility in West Africa, policymakers and planners need to study the characteristics of women with a demonstrated unmet need for family planning and use that information to improve policies and programs. This series of briefing papers is designed to contribute to that effort by offering some perspectives on the nature and dimensions of unmet need based on the findings of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) in 11 West African countries: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Cýte dýIvoire, Ghana, Guinea, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, and Togo. This brief focuses on Benin.
    English
    unmetneed_ghana.pdf
  • The countries of West Africa have some of the highest levels of unmet need for family planning in the world. During the six-year period (1995–2000) following the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, there were an estimated 12 million unintended pregnancies in the 18 West Africa Regional Program (WARP) countries. Yet family planning programs are currently low on most national agendas and there is no concerted effort to address the expressed need for family planning. To reduce the health and development consequences of unintended fertility in West Africa, policymakers and planners need to study the characteristics of women with a demonstrated unmet need for family planning and use that information to improve policies and programs. This series of briefing papers is designed to contribute to that effort by offering some perspectives on the nature and dimensions of unmet need based on the findings of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) in 11 West African countries: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Guinea, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, and Togo. This brief focuses on Guinea.
    English
    GUI_UnmetNeedFP.pdf
  • The countries of West Africa have some of the highest levels of unmet need for family planning in the world. During the six-year period (1995–2000) following the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, there were an estimated 12 million unintended pregnancies in the 18 West Africa Regional Program (WARP) countries. Yet family planning programs are currently low on most national agendas and there is no concerted effort to address the expressed need for family planning. To reduce the health and development consequences of unintended fertility in West Africa, policymakers and planners need to study the characteristics of women with a demonstrated unmet need for family planning and use that information to improve policies and programs. This series of briefing papers is designed to contribute to that effort by offering some perspectives on the nature and dimensions of unmet need based on the findings of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) in 11 West African countries: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Guinea, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, and Togo. This brief focuses on Mali.
    English
    MALI_UnmetNeedFP.pdf
  • The countries of West Africa have some of the highest levels of unmet need for family planning in the world. During the six-year period (1995–2000) following the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, there were an estimated 12 million unintended pregnancies in the 18 West Africa Regional Program (WARP) countries. Yet family planning programs are currently low on most national agendas and there is no concerted effort to address the expressed need for family planning. To reduce the health and development consequences of unintended fertility in West Africa, policymakers and planners need to study the characteristics of women with a demonstrated unmet need for family planning and use that information to improve policies and programs. This series of briefing papers is designed to contribute to that effort by offering some perspectives on the nature and dimensions of unmet need based on the findings of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) in 11 West African countries: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Guinea, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, and Togo. This brief focuses on Niger.
    English
    NIG_UnmetNeedFP.pdf
  • The countries of West Africa have some of the highest levels of unmet need for family planning in the world. During the six-year period (1995–2000) following the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, there were an estimated 12 million unintended pregnancies in the 18 West Africa Regional Program (WARP) countries. Yet family planning programs are currently low on most national agendas and there is no concerted effort to address the expressed need for family planning. To reduce the health and development consequences of unintended fertility in West Africa, policymakers and planners need to study the characteristics of women with a demonstrated unmet need for family planning and use that information to improve policies and programs. This series of briefing papers is designed to contribute to that effort by offering some perspectives on the nature and dimensions of unmet need based on the findings of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) in 11 West African countries: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Guinea, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, and Togo. This brief focuses on Senegal.
    English
    SEN_UnmetNeedFP.pdf
  • The countries of West Africa have some of the highest levels of unmet need for family planning in the world. During the six-year period (1995–2000) following the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, there were an estimated 12 million unintended pregnancies in the 18 West Africa Regional Program (WARP) countries. Yet family planning programs are currently low on most national agendas and there is no concerted effort to address the expressed need for family planning. To reduce the health and development consequences of unintended fertility in West Africa, policymakers and planners need to study the characteristics of women with a demonstrated unmet need for family planning and use that information to improve policies and programs. This series of briefing papers is designed to contribute to that effort by offering some perspectives on the nature and dimensions of unmet need based on the findings of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) in 11 West African countries: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Guinea, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, and Togo. This brief focuses on Togo.
    English
    TOG_UnmetNeedFP.pdf
  • The POLICY Project (POLICY) provided a focused technical assistance package between September 2002 and June 2004 in Peru to help identify and eliminate operational barriers that stand in the way of access to safe delivery care for low-income women, particularly in areas with high maternal mortality. Our research and analysis identified barriers to delivery care. Key stakeholders at both the regional and national levels assessed the most significant barriers as follows: the severe lack of financial resources and absence of appropriate personnel at health establishments; multifaceted problems with the implementation of the Integrated Health Insurance (SIS) resulting in poor quality services that clients must pay for; and lack of respect for local cultural practices and customs at health facilities that serve as a disincentive for women seeking institutional care for their deliveries.
    English
    Peru_CP_final.pdf
  • This volume, an updated and enlarged edition of the first edition, was conceived as a way to assist action programs by bringing together much of the comparative data that bear upon family planning and reproductive health. A matrix for 116 countries was constructed to embrace time trends for each of numerous data sets. The object was to provide both reference information through supporting tables, and basic analyses through textual presentation. The body of the text comments on the chief patterns and trends of each feature, usually by region. The topics chosen embrace a continuum from the demographic context to past and future contraceptive use, to service burdens, maternal and child health, HIV/AIDS, and, finally, to a selection of alternative action objectives. Large countries are given special attention in most sections.
    English
    Profiles116FP2ed.pdf
  • In the summer of 2003, USAID's Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean launched regional initiative to determine how contraceptive security in the LAC region could be more effectively addressed and strengthened in light of the phase-out of contraceptive donations. The initiative, which is being implemented by the POLICY and DELIVER Projects, commenced in July 2003 with a Regional Meeting in Managua, Nicaragua. Seventy representatives from governments, nongovernmental organizations, UNFPA, and USAID from nine Latin American countries came together to discuss and share their country's experiences with donor phase-out and efforts to achieve contraceptive security. The meeting was followed by two-week country assessments in Bolivia, Honduras, Nicaragua, Paraguay, and Peru, which were conducted between September 2003 and May 2004. Each assessment resulted in a full assessment report and an accompanying summary of country-level findings. Findings in each country were also presented to stakeholders at the end of each assessment. A regional report describes the findings at the regional level and makes recommendations for regional contraceptive security initiatives.
    English
    Regional_CS_Eng.pdf
  • Summary booklet of the full report "Review and Assessment of Laws Affecting HIV/AIDS in Tanzania," which reviews and makes recommendations to reform and enact laws to advance HIV/AIDS prevention and care in Tanzania.
    English
    TZlawreview_sumbooklet.pdf
  • In 2002, the POLICY Project embarked on an HIV/AIDS stigma research project in a country that has a substantial HIV/AIDS epidemic. The POLICY Project developed HIV/AIDS indicators and guidelines for stigma mitigation through a participatory, consultative process. The project carried out a qualitative research study in three sectors that play a leadership role in South Africa: the faith-based sector, national government departments, and the media. The research was conducted in communities across South Africa, and of the focus group participants, 85 percent were black, 55 percent were women, and 43 percent were people living with HIV/AIDS. HIV/AIDS indicators were developed to assist HIV/AIDS program managers to monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of their stigma mitigation efforts. Comprehensive guidelines were also developed to guide and strengthen HIV/AIDS programs to ensure that HIV/AIDS stigma mitigation programs are mainstreamed, resulting in a comprehensive and effective response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic in South Africa. Further funding has been secured through USAID/South Africa to continue the project and ensure that the findings, tools, and documents from this research will be used, tested, and improved and that they inform training interventions in the next phase of the project.
    English
    SA_core_pkg__final_.pdf
  • This report is a result of qualitative research investigating the challenges to GIPA, conducted in Cambodia from March 2003 - March 2005, as well as outcomes from training programs conducted with HIV-positive Cambodians over the same period. The research seeks to develop a deeper understanding of the role of HIV-positive people in the Cambodian response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The research examined the experiences and perceptions of HIV-positive people, HIV/AIDS service providers, policy makers and programmers related to the challenges to HIV-positive people's meaningful involvement in the design and implementation of AIDS policy and programming in Cambodia. The study also gathered information from HIV-positive people and HIV/AIDS service providers, policy makers and programmers to identify the necessary mechanisms to promote and sustain involvement. The study provided an opportunity to reflect on the level of involvement of people infected and affected by HIV and AIDS and to promote dialogue amongst HIV-positive people and other stake-holders to secure their greater involvement in Cambodia's response to the epidemic.
    English
    CAM_StepsToEmpower_En.pdf
  • Several published information indicates that Edo State has high rates of international sex trafficking, unplanned and unsafe abortion, female genital cutting and sexually transmitted diseases including HIV/AIDS among youth. These problems have been widely discussed in the popular press, and there is a growing body of public opinion indicating that Edo State has critical reproductive health problems among young people that need to be urgently addressed. Consequently, it was considered necessary to develop a strategic plan for improving the sexual and reproductive health of young adults and adolescents in Edo State and to address the peculiar YAARH problems in the state. We believe that such a plan would engender common understanding of the real needs of adolescents and young adults by relevant stakeholders in Edo State, thereby generating considerable impetus and resources for addressing the problems.
    English
    NIG_ARH_StratPlan.pdf
  • In November 2004, Uganda’s cabinet of ministers adopted a policy on orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) following three years of organised and structured data collection, analysis, stakeholder workshops, and other efforts to which the POLICY Project contributed. POLICY offered to further examine the adequacy of existing laws and policies for meeting needs of OVC and to assess the degree to which existing laws and policies are implemented, identify weaknesses in enforcement provisions and institutional arrangements, and make recommendations for responding to legal-policy gaps and strengthening enforcement mechanisms. Part One of this summary describes the first study of legal-policy issues and Part Two describes the analysis and recommendations regarding the National Council for Children. The full reports of the studies can be obtained upon request from the POLICY/Uganda or POLICY/DC office.
    English
    Uga_OVC_Sum.pdf
  • The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo stressed the importance of gender and noted that reproductive health programs should be implemented from a gender perspective. However, little has been written about how reproductive health programs that focus on improving quality of care and access to care can integrate gender. This paper describes the experiences of three types of programs (government, reproductive health NGO, and women’s health NGO) in Kenya, India, and Guatemala that integrate gender in their work and examines how they integrate gender into programs that improve quality of care and access to care. It should be emphasized that this report does not document whether gender integration results in higher quality and access, but rather documents how gender integration can take place. This report is based on data that were collected in the three countries, through interviews with a total of 27 program staff and 34 providers and through focus groups with 136 clients. These three types of programs engage clients in the clinic and community setting in a manner closely related to their mandates and perspectives on gender. In the government and reproductive health (RH) NGOs, the emphasis is on quality and access, with gender included as a means to reach those goals. The women’s NGOs have the mandate to first promote gender equity (primarily through women’s empowerment), and also to use it as a means to promote reproductive health care. The organizations with the strongest internal gender policies, namely the women’s and RH NGOs, are also the most committed to integrating gender into their programs for clients. The RH NGOs are most committed to gender equity or equal participation of women and men in the organization.
    English
    GAQsynthesis.pdf
  • This report shares findings from a pilot of the POLICY Project’s Gender Equitable Male Involvement (GEMI) Assessment Tool. In October 2002, the POLICY Project used the GEMI tool to conduct an assessment of the policy environment related to gender-equitable male involvement in Jamaica, with a focus on male youth. Based on interviews with key stakeholders from a cross-section of government, civil society, and youth-serving organizations, the assessment sought to describe the current policy environment related to gender-equitable male involvement, and identify priority areas for developing or strengthening policies to support gender-equitable male involvement, and the related advocacy and policy dialogue, information, and capacity building needed to support this.
    English
    GEMI_Pilot_Jam.pdf
  • USAID and its cooperating agencies are studying procurement issues and options for countries that no longer receive USAID and/or international donor support for contraceptive commodities, including Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, and Mexico. This report summarizes the key findings from Costa Rica. This review of Costa Rica's contraceptive procurement practices suggests that the country program has been successful in maintaining a consistent supply of contraceptives from a variety of sectors. The Costa Rican government received its final contraceptive commodity support from international donors more than 12 years ago. In 1992—just before USAID's withdrawal from Costa Rica—contraceptive prevalence was already high at 75 percent. The latest reproductive health survey conducted (1999) showed another increase in prevalence to 80 percent—almost six years after USAID's withdrawal. This report highlights the key factors that were important in procuring sufficient contraceptive commodities to meet the needs of Costa Rican men and women.
    English
    382_1_Procurement_Options_Costa_Rica.pdf
  • Uganda has had laudable success in reducing HIV prevalence in the country and is still focused on strengthening and scaling up prevention, treatment and care, and support efforts. Currently, over 1 million people are estimated to have received HIV counseling and testing, over 500,000 HIV-positive individuals are receiving palliative care and over 60,000 are receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). Access to services has increased as service delivery sites have expanded into rural areas. With a prevalence rate that appears to have stalled at around 7 percent and new infections continuing to occur among those of reproductive age, the epidemic still requires policy and program attention.
    English
    Uganda TOO Final 12 20 05.pdf
  • The success of the RHCS work in Madagascar, while noted by the USAID community and its implementing partners, has not been well documented. This assessment provides documentation and a clear description of the country's success in using the SPARHCS process to strengthen RHCS and reposition the FP program. These results can be seen as a success story for RFP and may be used as guidelines for countries currently planning for, or implementing, RHCS and RFP strategies. The RFP initiative is based on the premise that, with increased political commitment for financial and human resources for FP, strengthened participation and coordination among donors and partners, and more effective programming of resources toward technically sound programs, it will be possible to expand access and meet unmet need for family planning. This assessment documents the SPARHCS process, and its results, challenges, and recommendations for raising awareness of the FP program in Madagascar. The sources of information for this paper were the result of in-depth interviews with key stakeholders and a review of documents. The information presented in this paper highlights the success story of family planning and how the SPARHCS process contributed to repositioning family planning in Madagascar, and reports on the major results achieved thus far.
    English
    SPARHCS Madagascar Reposition FP Final report.pdf
  • Recent news, events, and current policymaking efforts within the field of youth reproductive health.
    English
    Youth-policyNews(Jan05).pdf
  • Recent news, events, and current policymaking efforts within the field of youth reproductive health.
    English
    Youth-policyNews(Apr05).pdf
  • Recent news, events, and current policymaking efforts within the field of youth reproductive health.
    English
    youth-policy Newsletter Peru (color) final.pdf
  • An evaluation of the full first year of operation of the youth-policy.com website.
    English
    yp_monitoring_2005.pdf